de pdf - Historisch Genootschap Roterodamum

Commentaren

Transcriptie

de pdf - Historisch Genootschap Roterodamum
2YVUPLR
/PZ[VYPZJO .LUVV[ZJOHW 9V[LYVKHT\T
-2,3 9(
9-8 () :)6)2-+-2+'303*32 :336;336( :%2 () (-6)'8)96 :%2 %,3= %,3=() :336+)7',-)()2-7 TLP () &39; .%%6 &)789960-./) +)7',-)()2-7 &900)8-2 .)9+(0%2( 0)()2 -2 () 7',-.2;)64)67 23+1%%07 ,)8 /))>)2(-2+ %+)2(% *38349>>)0 (OV` PZ KL HMNLSVWLU QHYLU PU LLU UPL\^ QHZQL NLZ[VRLU ,LU ]HU
KL [YV[ZLU ]HU 9V[[LYKHTA\PK RHU LY ^LLY QHYLU [LNLU LU PZ RSHHY
VT OVUKLYK\PaLUKLU ILaVLRLYZ [L VU[]HUNLU 0U KLaL 2YVUPLR
ILZ[LKLU ^L Y\PT HHUKHJO[ HHU KL NLZJOPLKLUPZ ]HU OL[
:WVY[WHSLPZ KL )L\YZ LU ,]LULTLU[LUOHSSLU LU OL[ *VUNYLZ =LYNHKLYJLU[Y\T ,LU NLZJOPLKLUPZ KPL UPL[ WHZ QHHY V\K PZ
THHY HS [LY\NNHH[ [V[ KL QHYLU KLY[PN ]HU KL ]VYPNL LL\^
Officiële heropening
Sportpaleis van Ahoy
/PZ[VYPZJO .LUVV[ZJOHW
9V[LYVKH T\T
9MXRSHMKMRKZSSVHISJJMGMtPISTIRMRKZER%LS]´MR
<0; +, =,9,50.05.
0U KL HMNLSVWLU THHUKLU ^LYKLU KL ]VSNLUKL TLUZLU SPK ]HU
OL[ .LUVV[ZJOHW
-LIY\HYP
4HHY[
+OY .( KLU +YPQ]LY +OY 1*( .V]LYKL +OY , 1HNLY
=PLPYH 4^ 4 ]HU 5LZ[L +OY . -YPZOLY[ +OY 91(
4PSKLUILYN 4^ /4 4PSKLUILYN2SL\]LY +OY 47(
:JOPWWLY +OY +/ :[\PQ[ +OY *7 .YVLULUIVVT +OY )4
]HU KLU )LYN LU +OY >-1 /HTHUU HSSLU [L 9V[[LYKHT LU
+OY /1> 3PN[OHY[ 9PKKLYRLYR
4^ (. (HYZLU 9V[[LYKHT +OY )( ,S]LYZ *HWLSSL HK
01ZZLS +OY 1/ ]HU KLY 3HHRLU 9OVVU +OY -3
5VVYKLYNYHHM 3LLYKHT +OY 4 9PL[KPQR 9V[[LYKHT
4^ 9PL[KPQR7VLSQLZ 9V[[LYKHT +OY ( :WLLSTHU
9V[[LYKHT LU +OY 4* =VVNK 9V[[LYKHT ‹
3,A,9: ,5 ),:;<<9:3,+,5 :*/901=,5
/LYPUULYPUNLU HHU (OV`
=VVY KL Z[\KPL LJVUVTPL OHK PR TPQ PU PUNLZJOYL]LU IPQ KL 5LKLYSHUKZ ,JVUVTPZJOL /VNLZJOVVS +L LLYZ[L JVSSLNLZ ]VSNKL
PR PU OL[ UVN UPL[ HMNLIV\^KL JVTWSL_ VW >V\KLZ[LPU ;PQKLUZ OL[ LLYZ[L JVSSLNL HSNLTLUL LJVUVTPL NHM WYVMLZZVY 3HTILYZ VW
MPQUaPUUPNL ^PQaL HHU KH[ ^L VUaL SPURLY LU YLJO[LY I\\YTHU L]LU RVY[ TVLZ[LU HHURPQRLU LU VUZ KHU TVLZ[LU YLHSPZLYLU KH[ ttU
]HU KL KYPL UPL[ KVVY KL WYVWHLKL\ZL [LU[HTLUZ OLLU aV\ RVTLU +H[ OHR[ LYPU LU ISPQM[ L]LU OHUNLU IPQ Z[\KLU[LU PU KL
UVN UPL\^ Y\PRLUKL H\SH
.LaPLU KL ILWLYR[L Y\PT[L HHU KL )\YNLTLLZ[LY 6\KSHHU aV\KLU KL WYVWHLKL\ZL [LU[HTLUZ ^VYKLU HMNLUVTLU PU OL[ UPL\^L
(OV` 4L[ KL TL[YV UHHY OL[ A\PKWSLPU LU KL TLLZ[L Z[\KLU[LU SPLWLU V]LY KL MS`V]LY UHHY (OV` +HHY Z[VUKLU [HMLS[QLZ VW
YLKLSPQRL HMZ[HUK ]HU LSRHHY PU LLU NYV[L aHHS 0UKY\R^LRRLUK +VVY KPL aPJO[IHYL THZZHSP[LP[ ]VLSKL PR WHZ KHHY KH[ ttU KLYKL OL[
[^LLKL QHHY UPL[ aV\ OHSLU¯
(HK 2VZ[LY
0U KLaL 2YVUPLR [YLM[ \ ]LYZWYLPK LLU HHU[HS HUKLYL OLYPUULYPUNLU HHU (OV` HHU ‹
JVSVMVU
+L 2YVUPLR PZ LLU \P[NH]L ]HU /PZ[VYPZJO .LUVV[ZJOHW
9V[LYVKHT\T
9LKHJ[PL
:QHHR ]HU KLY =LSKLU
:WHUNLZLRHKL H
.2 9V[[LYKHT
[LSLMVVU! LTHPS! ZQHHR]K]LSKLU'NTHPSJVT
0SS\Z[YH[PLZ! .(9 LPNLU JVSSLJ[PL (OV`
=VYTNL]PUN! :[\KPV .LZJOLY )56 3LPKLYKVYW
3H`V\[ LU KY\R! .YHMtUV
:LJYL[HYPHH[ LU 3LKLUHKTPUPZ[YH[PL /.9
* /HY[Z\PRLY
7VZ[I\Z 2* 9V[[LYKHT
[LSLMVVU! .PYV LTHPS! YV[LYVKHT\T'YV[LYVKHT\TUS
JVU[YPI\[PL! _ WLY QHHY
VUKLYZ[L\ULUK NLaPUZSPKTHH[ZJOHW! _ WLY QHHY
3LKLU VU[]HUNLU OL[ 9V[[LYKHTZ 1HHYIVLRQL LU ]PQM RLLY WLY
QHHY KL 2YVUPLR )V]LUKPLU aPQU aPQ ^LSRVT VW HSSL KVVY
9V[LYVKHT\T NLVYNHUPZLLYKL IPQLLURVTZ[LU SLaPUNLU LU
L_J\YZPLZ
6WSHNL! L_LTWSHYLU
>LIZP[L! O[[W!^^^YV[LYVKHT\TUS
2YVUPLR TLP +L ]VSNLUKL 2YVUPLR ]LYZJOPQU[ YVUK ZLW[LTILY :S\P[PUNZKH[\T RVWPQ H\N\Z[\Z +0,9)(9, /,9055,905.,5 ((5 =,,9;0. 1((9 (/[email protected]
(SZ QHYLUSHUN SPK ]HU OL[ /PZ[VYPZJO .LUVV[ZJOHW
9V[LYVKHT\T ¶ ^PL HUKLYZ KHU VUZ HSSLY /HUZ /VYZ[PUN OLLM[
TL [V[ OL[ SPKTHH[ZJOHW ]LYSLPK ¶ PZ OL[ TL LLU OLSL LLY VT PU
KLaL WYHJO[PNL 2YVUPLR PL[Z [L TVNLU ]LY[LSSLU V]LY 4PQU
(OV`
(OV` ILZ[HH[ ]LLY[PN QHHY THHY [LYLJO[ Z[HH[ PU KLaL 2YVUPLR
KH[ KL NLZJOPLKLUPZ ]LLS ]LYKLY [LY\NNHH[ Y\PT [HJO[PN QHHY
5HHY KL 5LUPQ[V 5LKLYSHUKZL 5PQ]LYOLPKZ[LU[VVUZ[LSSPUN PU
PU KL NLSPQRUHTPNL OHSSLU UHHY 9V[[LYKHT (OV` PU
PU OL[ RHKLY ]HU KL >LKLYVWIV\^ ]HU 9V[[LYKHT PU KL
SH[LYL (OV`OHS UHIPQ OL[ ]VVYTHSPNL +PQRaPN[ APLRLUO\PZ LU
[LUZSV[[L PU ¶ QHHY SH[LY ¶ KL ]LYO\PaPUN UHHY KL O\PKP
NL SVJH[PL VW 9V[[LYKHT A\PK (OV` TL[ \P[YVLW[LRLU (OV`
^LYK HS NH\^ (OV` TL[ HWVZ[YVM (OV`» LU [LUZSV[[L ^LYK LY
LLU W\U[ HJO[LYNLaL[ LU PZ OL[ NL^VVU (OV` 0U KL SVVW ]HU
KPL ]LLY[PN QHHY PZ (OV` LLU ILNYPW PU 9V[[LYKHT 5LKLYSHUK LU
]LY KHHYI\P[LU NL^VYKLU! aV»U TPSQVLU TLUZLU ^PZ[LU KL
^LN UHHY (OV` [L ]PUKLU ^HHY]HU Y\PT TPSQVLU VUZ
:WVY[WHSLPZ ILaVJO[ ^HHY HS TLLY KHU JVUJLY[LU KVVY
TLLY KHU HY[PLZ[LUIHUKZ WSHH[Z]VUKLU LU ^L HS aV»U
L]LULTLU[LU OLIILU TVNLU ILSL]LU
0R ILU NLIVYLU LU NL[VNLU VW 9V[[LYKHTA\PK LU OLI (OV`
SL[[LYSPQR NLIV\^K aPLU ^VYKLU 0R aH[ [VLU VW OL[ 4VU[MVY[
*VSSLNL LU PU KL WH\aL [\ZZLU KL TPKKHN NPUNLU ^L HS[PQK LLU
ILL[QL YVUKOHUNLU VW KL IV\^ 4HJO[PN ]VUKLU ^L KH[
>PL OHK [VLU R\UULU ILKLURLU KH[ PR SH[LY KPYLJ[L\Y ]HU
(OV` aV\ ^VYKLU +H[ ILU PR U\ Y\PT QHHY LU ZPUKZ ZHTLU TL[ TPQU THUHNLTLU[[LHT VVR LPNLUHHY ]HU (OV` +PL
QHHY aPQU ]VVYIPQNL]SVNLU HS[PQK ^LLY UPL\^L \P[KHNPUNLU
LU UPL\^L RHUZLU! ¸UL]LY H K\SS TVTLU[¹ PU (OV`
6UaL JVYLI\ZPULZZ KYHHP[ RVY[ NLaLNK VT OL[ HJJVTTVKLYLU
LU VYNHUPZLYLU ]HU IL\YaLU L]LULTLU[LU JVUJLY[LU JVU
NYLZZLU LU ]LYNHKLYPUNLU PU VUZ VUSHUNZ NLOLLS NLTVKLYUP
ZLLYKL :WVY[WHSLPZ VUaL )L\YZ ,]LULTLU[LUOHSSLU LU VUZ
*VUNYLZ =LYNHKLYJLU[Y\T 4L[ aPQU KYPLwU ]VYTLU aL LLU
\UPLRL JVTIPUH[PL VT VT]HUNYPQRL L]LULTLU[LU [L R\UULU
O\PZ]LZ[LU HSZ OL[ ()5 (TYV >VYSK ;LUUPZ ;V\YUHTLU[ OL[
5VY[O :LH 1Haa -LZ[P]HS THHY VVR 5PNO[ VM [OL 7YVTZ VM VUaL
THYP[PLTL ]HRIL\YZ ,\YVWVY[ ^HHY]VVY aLSMZ [PQKLSPQRL OHSSLU
NLIV\^K ^VYKLU
=LSL L]LULTLU[LU ZWYLRLU UVN [V[ KL ]LYILLSKPUN VM OHSLU
KPLYIHYL OLYPUULYPUNLU UHHY IV]LU aVHSZ ]LYKLYVW PU KL
2YVUPLR [L SLaLU PZ 6VR KL [LU[VVUZ[LSSPUN º)LSLLM QHHY
(OV`» PU KL JLU[YHSL LU[YLL ]HU (OV` SHH[ LLU HHU[HS ]HU KPL
OLYPUULYPUNLU aPLU
>PL PZ LY UPL[ VWNLNYVLPK TL[ KL SLNLUKHYPZJOL RYLU[LUIVS
OL[ WHRQL TLSR LU OL[ IHUHHU[QL KH[ HSSL RPUKLYLU KPL
1L\NKSHUK U\ 1L\NK]HRHU[PLSHUK ILaVJO[LU ¸NYH[PZ¹ RYLNLU
\P[NLYLPR[ 4L[ OL[ 2LYZ[JPYJ\Z KL JVUJLY[LU ]HU 3LL
;V^LYZ IPUULURVY[ NLw]LUHHYK KVVY -YHUZ )H\LY KL
ALZKHHNZL VM +L =YPLUKLU ]HU (TZ[LS 30=,
>PL IL^HHY[ LY NLLU WYHJO[PNL OLYPUULYPUNLU HHU a»U LLYZ[
JVUJLY[& =VVY TPQ ^HZ KH[ 7PUR -SV`K VT WYLJPLZ [L aPQU VW HWYPS LU VVR UVN LLUZ OL[ LLYZ[L JVUJLY[ PU (OV` ^HHY
UH LY OVUKLYKLU JVUJLY[LU ]HU ]LSL ILYVLTKOLKLU NL]VSNK
aPQU ]HU -YHUR AHWWH [V[ :[PUN LU ]HU +PHUH 9VZZ [V[ (UKYt
/HaLZ ,LU V]LYaPJO[ KHHY]HU PZ [L ]PUKLU PU OL[ WHNPUH»Z
[LSSLUKL Q\IPSL\TMV[VIVLR ¸(OV` `LHYZ PU JVUJLY[¹
2YVUPLR TLP +P[ IVLR PZ TL[ OHHY ILWLYR[L VWSHNL LLU JVSSLJ[VYZ P[LT THHY
]VVY 9V[LYVKHT\T SLKLU [L ^PUULU 2PQR OPLY]VVY NH\^ VW
WHNPUH =LSL RPWWLU]LSTVTLU[LU HSZ LLU UPL\^ L]LULTLU[ VW W\U[
]HU ILNPUULU Z[VUK" [VLU LPUKLSPQR KL KL\YLU VWLU NPUNLU
]VVY OL[ LLYZ[L 5VY[O :LH 1Haa -LZ[P]HS PU 9V[[LYKHT LU (OV`
/VL aV\KLU KL ILaVLRLYZ KL V]LYNHUN ]HU +LU /HHN UHHY
9V[[LYKHT LY]HYLU& 0U ttU RLLY NVLK ISLLR SH[LY 6M KL OLY
VWLUPUN ]HU OL[ :WVY[WHSLPZ VW QHU\HYP QS LLU MLLZ[ VT
UVVP[ [L ]LYNL[LU
,Y ]HS[ UVN OLLS ]LLS [L ]LY[LSSLU V]LY (OV` THHY KH[ S\R[ UPL[
HSSLTHHS PU KLaL 2YVUPLR 6W KL QHHY]LYNHKLYPUN ]HU OL[
/PZ[VYPZJO .LUVV[ZJOHW VW TLP HZ PU (OV` ^PS PR NYHHN
TLLY ]LY[LSSLU V]LY KL VU[Z[HHUZNLZJOPLKLUPZ ]HU (OV` KL
HMNLSVWLU QHHY LU KL YLJLU[L TVKLYUPZLYPUN ]HU OL[
:WVY[WHSLPZ
0R ^LUZ \ ]LLS SLLZWSLaPLY TL[ KLaL (OV`2YVUPLR LU OVVW \
[L TVNLU ILNYVL[LU VW KL QHHY]LYNHKLYPUN VW TLP HZ PU
(OV`
1VZ ]HU KLY =LN[ ‹
96;;,9+(4 (/[email protected] +, =669.,:*/0,+,50:
>PL 9V[[LYKHT aLN[ aLN[ VVR )SPQKVYW +VLSLU ,\YVTHZ[ LU
(OV` (SSL [VLWHZZLSPQRL UHTLU ]VVY WSHH[ZLU ^HHY TLUZLU UH
OL[ ]VVY 9V[[LYKHTTLYZ ZWYLLR^VVYKLSPQRL OHYKL ^LYRLU
R\UULU VU[ZWHUULU (SSL ]PLY aPQU aL LURLSL [PLU[HSSLU QHYLU
V\K LU PUTPKKLSZ HS ^LLY LLUTHHS VM ]HRLY NLYLUV]LLYK
VWNLRUHW[ VM NLYLZ[`SLK 6USHUNZ R^HT HS^LLY KL KLYKL ]LY
IV\^PUN ]HU OL[ LUPNL JVTWSL_ KH[ VW a\PK Z[HH[ NLYLLK
(OV` PZ RSHHY ]VVY KL RVTLUKL QHYLU OVL^LS QL KH[ THHY
UVVP[ aLRLY ^LL[
(OV` ILZ[HH[ ]LLY[PN QHHY THHY KL LPNLUSPQRL NLZJOPLKLUPZ NHH[
]LLS ]LYKLY [LY\N (S PU KL TPKKLSLL\^LU RLUKL 9V[[LYKHT KL
:[ 1VYPZKVLSL /PLY VLMLUKLU KL ZJO\[[LYZ TL[ O\U IVNLU VW
KVLSLU ^HHYUH aL aPJO V]LYNH]LU HHU KYHUR LU T\aPLR 0U
IV\^KL TLU LLU NLIV\^ HHU OL[ /HHNZJOL]LLY ^HHY
VWLUIHYL JVUJLY[LU ^LYKLU NLNL]LU! KL +VLSL (HU KL
*VVSZPUNLS ]LY]PUN UH KL .YVV[L +VLSLaHHS KL V\KL
+VLSL ]HU OL[ /HHNZJOL]LLY )PQUH LLU LL\^ SH[LY UHT TLU
LLU UPL\^L +VLSL PU NLIY\PR THHY KP[ NLIV\^ V]LYSLLMKL OL[
IVTIHYKLTLU[ ]HU UPL[
0U KL ULNLU[PLUKL LL\^ZL +VLSL ^LYK UPL[ HSSLLU NLT\ZP
JLLYK THHY LY ^LYKLU KHHY VVR RSLPULYL [LU[VVUZ[LSSPUNLU
NLOV\KLU aVHSZ PU LLU L_WVZP[PL V]LY 5HHSKR\UZ[ +L
LLYZ[L [LU[VVUZ[LSSPUN TL[ LLU PU[LYUH[PVUHHS [PU[QL ^HZ LLU
WYLZLU[H[PL ]HU L_V[PZJOL ]VVY^LYWLU HSZ PUaLUKPUN ]VVY KL
>LYLSK[LU[VVUZ[LSSPUN KPL PU PU 7HYPQZ WSHH[Z]VUK 6VR
PU SH[LY QHYLU VYNHUPZLLYKL TLU [LU[VVUZ[LSSPUNLU aVHSZ KPL ]HU
PU OL[ .LIV\^ ]VVY 2\UZ[LU LU >L[LUZJOHWWLU HHU
KL :JOPLKHTZLZPUNLS ^HHY 9V[[LYKHTZL PUK\Z[YPLWYVK\J[LU [L
aPLU ^HYLU 0U ]VUK PU +L =LYLLUPNPUN HHU KL
:JOPLRHKL LLU ZVVY[NLSPQR L]LULTLU[ WSHH[Z 4HHY WHZ UH KL
,LYZ[L >LYLSKVVYSVN RYLLN TLU PU 9V[[LYKHT TLLY ILSHUNZ[LS
SPUN ]VVY PU[LYUH[PVUHSL [LU[VVUZ[LSSPUNLU UHHY HHUSLPKPUN ]HU
KL 6S`TWPZJOL :WLSLU KPL PU PU (TZ[LYKHT aV\KLU ^VY
KLU NLOV\KLU ,LU NYVLW ]VVYHHUZ[HHUKL9V[[LYKHTTLYZ ]LY
VUKLYZ[LSKL KH[ KP[ L]LULTLU[ aLLY ]LLS I\P[LUSHUKZ ILaVLR
aV\ [YLRRLU ^HHY VVR 9V[[LYKHT aPQU ]VVYKLLS TLL aV\ R\U
ULU KVLU +P[ ^HZ YLKLU VT LLU [LU[VVUZ[LSSPUN [L VYNHUPZL
YLU V]LY KL 0UK\Z[YPL :JOLLW]HHY[ /HUKLS LU )LKYPQMZaVYN
=VVY KLaL 5LKLYSHUKZL 5PQ]LYOLPKZ[LU[VVUZ[LSSPUN KPL KL
UHHT 5LUPQ[V RYLLN ^LYKLU PU KL ºWVSKLY» )SPQKVYW ]PLY OV\
[LU WH]PSQVLUZ TL[ Z[HSLU ZWHU[LU NLIV\^K ^HHYTLL aV»U
Tõ V]LYKLR[L [LU[VVUZ[LSSPUNZY\PT[L ^LYK NLYLHSPZLLYK
+L 5LUPQ[V ^HZ ]VVY 9V[[LYKHT LLU IPQaVUKLYL NLIL\Y[LUPZ
/L[ ^HZ OL[ QHHY KH[ KL Z[HK QHHY ILZ[VUK THHY VVR ^LYK
LY ]VVY OL[ LLYZ[ ZPUKZ ^LLY LLU RLYTPZ NLOV\KLU
=PQM[PNLY QHYLU
;VLU 9V[[LYKHT aPJO LUPNZaPUZ ILNVU [L OLYZ[LSSLU ]HU KL
NL]VSNLU ]HU KL ;^LLKL >LYLSKVVYSVN LU KL ^LKLYVWIV\^
]HU KL OH]LU aV NVLK HSZ ]VS[VVPK ^HZ SHN LLU [LU[VVUZ[LSSPUN
V]LY KP[ VUKLY^LYW LU ^H[ LY PU ]PQM QHHY PU 9V[[LYKHT ILYLPR[
^HZ ]VVY KL OHUK :WLJPHHS ]VVY KP[ KVLS ^LYK ttU ]HU KL
V\KL 5LUPQ[VOHSSLU HMNLIYVRLU LU ^LLY OLYIV\^K VW LLU [LY
YLPU HHU KL >LZ[aLLKPQR ^HHY U\ KL 4LKPZJOL -HJ\S[LP[ ]HU
KL ,YHZT\Z <UP]LYZP[LP[ Z[HH[ +LaL OHS ^LYK KHHY UVN LLUZ
\P[NLIYLPK TL[ [^LL RSLPULYL OHSSLU 6W KL ,LYZ[L
>LKLYVWIV\^KHN PU TLP ^LYK º9V[[LYKHT (OV`»
NLVWLUK LLU [LU[VVUZ[LSSPUN KPL THHY SPLMZ[ aLZ THHUKLU
K\\YKL LU NLK\YLUKL KH[ OHSM QHHY ILaVLRLYZ [YVR
+L OLSL 4HHZZ[HK Z[VUK KLZ[PQKZ KHU VVR PU OL[ [LRLU ]HU
KLaL L_WVZP[PL HHU KL >LZ[aLLKPQR
2YVUPLR TLP +L OHS KPL ZWLJPHHS ]VVY KLaL [LU[VVUZ[LSSPUN [PQKLSPQR ^HZ
ULLYNLaL[ ISLLM ILZ[HHU LU RYLLN HS NH\^ KL UHHT º(OV`OHS»
/L[ ILOLLY ]HU KL OHS R^HT PU OHUKLU ]HU KL º:[PJO[PUN (OV`
[V[ L_WSVP[H[PL ]HU [LU[VVUZ[LSSPUNY\PT[LU *(» 0U ISL
RLU ºKL (OV`OHSSLU» ]HU LLU VU]LY^HJO[L ^HHYKL IPQ KL
VW]HUN ]HU KL ZSHJO[VMMLYZ ]HU KL ^H[LYZUVVKYHTW 0U ^LYK LY UVN LLU NLIV\^ IPQNLaL[ ]VVY 5H[PVUHSL ,ULYNPL
4HUPMLZ[H[PL ,! KL ,ULYNPLOHS
+LaL OHSSLU Z[VUKLU LJO[LY PU KL ^LN [VLU OL[ +PQRaPN[
APLRLUO\PZ ^PSKL \P[IYLPKLU TL[ KL 4LKPZJOL -HJ\S[LP[ ]HU KL
,YHZT\Z <UP]LYZP[LP[ (OV` ]LYO\PZKL [PQKLSPQR UHHY KL /VMKPQR
KL ,ULYNPLOHS UHHY KL (IYHOHT ]HU :[VSR^LN +L ULUPQ[VOHS
ISLLM ]HU [V[ PU NLIY\PR HHU KL /VMKPQR LU KL
,ULYNPLOHS OPLSK Z[HUK [V[ VUKLY HUKLYL HSZ [O\PZIHZPZ
]HU ]LSL OHYKJVYL MLLZ[LU
:QV\RQL +PQRZ[YH PUZWPYLLYKL [V[ IV\^ (OV`
(S PU ^LYK OL[ PUP[PH[PLM NLIVYLU VT LLU NYVV[ ZWVY[WH
SLPZ PU 9V[[LYKHT VW [L YPJO[LU 0U KPL WLYPVKL ^HZ :QV\RQL
+PQRZ[YH OL[ NYV[L MLUVTLLU PU 5LKLYSHUK LU aPQ PUZWPYLLYKL
KHU VVR PU LLYZ[L PUZ[HU[PL [V[ KP[ ]VVY\P[Z[YL]LUKL WSHU /L[
HHU]HURLSPQRL WYP]tWYVQLJ[ UHT PU KL SVVW KLY QHYLU LLU
aVKHUPNL VT]HUN HHU KH[ KL NLTLLU[L LYIPQ IL[YVRRLU YHHR[L
LU OL[ WYVQLJ[ \P[LPUKLSPQR V]LYUHT
0U ILNVU TLU TL[ KL IV\^ ]HU OL[ O\PKPNL (OV` LU PU
^HYLU KYPL [LU[VVUZ[LSSPUNZOHSSLU LU OL[ :WVY[WHSLPZ
NLYLLK 0U ZLW[LTILY ]HU KH[ QHHY ^LYK (OV` YLLKZ PU NLIY\PR
NLUVTLU TL[ KL 9V[[LYKHTZL MHTPSPLIL\YZ -LTPUH <P[LPUKL
SPQR ^LYK (OV` VW QHU\HYP VMMPJPLLS NLVWLUK KVVY
A2/ 7YPUZ *SH\Z
9V[[LYKHT ^HZ LLU WYHJO[PN LU ZWYHHRTHRLUK JVTWSL_ YPQRLY
VU[^VYWLU KVVY KL HYJOP[LJ[LU =HU KLY :[VLW LU .YVVZTHU
,U aVKHUPN PTWVZHU[ KH[ OPLY]VVY PU KL 5H[PVUHSL
:[HHSWYPQZ ]VVY HYJOP[LJ[\\Y ^LYK [VLNLRLUK LU LLU QHHY SH[LY
KL 0U[LYUH[PVUHSL :[HHSWYPQZ ]VVY HYJOP[LJ[\\Y =VVYHS KL Z[HHS
JVUZ[Y\J[PLZ PU KL [LU[VVUZ[LSSPUNZOHSSLU LU KPL ]HU OL[ KHR
]HU OL[ :WVY[WHSLPZ ^HYLU PU KPL [PQK aLLY IPQaVUKLY
(YJOP[LJ[ -. ]HU KLY :[VLW KPL ]HUHM OL[ ILNPU UH\^ IPQ OL[
WYVQLJ[ IL[YVRRLU ^HZ ]LY[LSKL PU [LY NLSLNLUOLPK ]HU
OL[ QHYPN ILZ[HHU! ¸+L ]VVYILYLPKPUNLU [V[ LU TL[ OL[ ILNPU
]HU KL IV\^ ILZSVLNLU LLU WLYPVKL ]HU IPQUH [PLU QHHY /L[
^HZ ]VVY KPL [PQK LLU LUVYT WYVQLJ[ KH[ [L THRLU RYLLN TL[
]LSL \WZ LU KV^UZ 4HHY [VLU UH KPL LLYZ[L QHYLU KL ILZSPZZPUN
[V[ IV\^LU LPUKLSPQR ^LYK NLUVTLU NPUN OL[ YHaLUKZULS /L[
\UPLRL HHU KP[ WYVQLJ[ ^HZ KH[ LY [LNLSPQRLY[PQK NL[LRLUK LU
NLIV\^K ^LYK ;VLU KL LLYZ[L OLPWHSLU KL NYVUK PUNPUNLU
^HZ UVN UPL[ WYLJPLZ ILRLUK OVL OL[ NLIV\^ LY\P[ aV\ RVTLU
[L aPLU ,U KH[ ^HZ LU PZ UVN Z[LLKZ OLLS IPQaVUKLY¹
5H KL VWLUPUN PU ^HZ OL[ WYVQLJ[ UVN Z[LLKZ UPL[ HMNL
YVUK ,Y ^HYLU UHTLSPQR WSHUULU VT OL[ JVTWSL_ \P[ [L IYLP
KLU TL[ LLU OV[LS UHHY I\P[LUSHUKZ ]VVYILLSK THHY VVR KL
YLHSPZH[PL ]HU LLU PQZIHHU ]HU TL[LY LU LLU IL[LYL ]LYIPU
KPUN TL[ OL[ UHIPQ NLSLNLU TL[YVZ[H[PVU A\PKWSLPU ILOVVYKLU
[V[ KL HTIP[PLZ ]HU KL HYJOP[LJ[LU (S KLaL WSHUULU OLIILU PU
KL QHYLU » ]LLS HHUKHJO[ NLOHK THHY aPQU UVVP[ NLYLHSP
ZLLYK
<P[IYLPKPUN
0U ^LYK PUNLZ[LTK TL[ KL \P[IYLPKPUNZWSHUULU ]HU (OV`
+L [VLUTHSPNL 3L\]LOHS TL[ LLU ]SVLYVWWLY]SHR[L ]HU ]PLYRHU[L TL[LY LU KL [VLUTHSPNL ,LTOHS TL[ ]PLYRHU[L
TL[LY KL NYVV[Z[L OHS ^LYKLU PU PU NLIY\PR NLUVTLU
AL]LU QHHY SH[LY ^LYK KL L_WSVP[H[PL ]LYaLSMZ[HUKPNK +VVY
KLaL ILZSPZZPUN ]HU KL NLTLLU[L 9V[[LYKHT ^LYK (OV` LLU
JVTTLYJPwSL PUZ[LSSPUN KPL KHHYKVVY LLU Z[\R ZSHN]HHYKPNLY
RVU OHUKLSLU 6VR OL[ [`WL L]LULTLU[LU RVU OPLYKVVY ^VY
KLU \P[NLIYLPK ^HU[ LLYKLY PU KL OPZ[VYPL ]LYIVVK OL[
NLTLLU[LILZ[\\Y UVN LLU 4PZZ]LYRPLaPUN PU (OV`
+L HHU]HURLSPQRL WSHUULU ]VVY KL IV\^ ]HU (OV` ^HYLU \P[
NLIYLPKLY LU UPL[ HSSLZ KHHY]HU PZ NLYLHSPZLLYK >LS PZ LY ]HU
ILNPU HM HHU NLRVaLU ]VVY LLU Y\PTL WHYRLLYNLSLNLUOLPK 0U
^LYKLU ILOHS]L KL \P[IYLPKPUN ]HU KL OHSSLU L]LULLUZ
LLU JVUNYLZaHHS LU RHU[VVYY\PT[L VW KL [^LLKL ]LYKPLWPUN
HMNLIV\^K
-HJLSPM[Z
(SZ JVTTLYJPLLS ILKYPQM ISLLM OL[ UVVKaHRLSPQR VT HSLY[ [L ISPQ
]LU VW KL LPZLU KPL HHU LLU HJJVTTVKH[PL HSZ (OV` ^VYKLU
NLZ[LSK +HHYVT ^LYK PU ILZSV[LU [V[ LLU NYVV[ZJOHSPNL
YLUV]H[PL ]HU OL[ JVTWSL_ (OV` ]LYRLLYKL KLZ[PQKZ PU LLU
º]LYSVLKLYKL Z[HH[» LU OHK [L RHTWLU TL[ LUVYT HJO[LYZ[HSSPN
VUKLYOV\K +L NYPQaL IL[VUULU THZZH THHR[L WSHH[Z ]VVY LLU
SPJO[L Y\PT[LSPQRL VU[]HUNZ[OHS LU KL [LU[VVUZ[LSSPUNZOHSSLU
^LYKLU L]LUHSZ OL[ :WVY[WHSLPZ VWNLRUHW[ LU NLZJOPSKLYK
/L[ NYVV[Z[L KLLS ]HU KL YLUV]H[PL ^LYK LJO[LY HHU OL[ VVN
VU[[YVRRLU ,LU HHUaPLUSPQR KLLS ]HU KL PU [V[HHS Y\PT
TPSQVLU L\YV [VLU TPSQVLU N\SKLU RVZ[LUKL YLUV]H[PL
^HZ UHTLSPQR NLZ[VRLU PU KL ^LYR[\PNIV\^R\UKL LU KL LSLR
[YV[LJOUPLR <UPLR ^HZ KH[ [PQKLUZ KLaL NYVV[ZJOHSPNL
YLUV]H[PL KL L_WSVP[H[PL ]HU (OV` NL^VVU KVVYNPUN 6VR
VTKH[ IPQ KL ]LYO\PaPUNLU PU OL[ ]LYSLKLU NYVV[ZJOHSPNL L]L
ULTLU[LU VUKLYKHR IPQ KL JVUJ\YYLU[PL aVJO[LU LU ]LY]VSNLUZ
UPL[ [LY\NRLLYKLU UHHY OL[ UPL\^L (OV`
,tU ]HU KL TLLZ[ PUNYPQWLUKL ]LYHUKLYPUNLU ^HZ [VLU ^LS OL[
]LY^PQKLYLU ]HU KL ^PLSLYIHHU \P[ OL[ :WVY[WHSLPZ 0U KYPL
THHUKLU [PQK ^LYK KL PUTPKKLSZ SLNLUKHYPZJOL ^PLSLYIHHU
NLZSVVW[ ZPTWLS^LN VTKH[ KLaL UPL[ TLLY YLUKHILS ^HZ
)V]LUKPLU RVU KL ]YPQNLRVTLU JHWHJP[LP[ PU OL[ :WVY[WHSLPZ
IL[LY ILU\[ ^VYKLU +L KHRZWHU[LU ^LYKLU ]LYa^HHYK VTKH[
KL NLS\PKZHWWHYH[\\Y KPL OPLYHHU ^VYKLU VWNLOHUNLU Z[LLKZ
NLH]HUJLLYKLY LU a^HHYKLY ^LYK ,U VTKH[ VVR KL LPZLU ]VVY
2YVUPLR TLP [LSL]PZPLVWUHTLU ]LYHUKLYK ^HYLU ^LYK LY LLU UPL\^ SPJO[
WSHMVUK PU OL[ :WVY[WHSLPZ HHUNLIYHJO[ KH[ KLZ[PQKZ NVSK HSZ
LLU [LJOUPZJO OVVNZ[HUKQL
0U ^LYK NLZ[HY[ TL[ KL ]VSNLUKL ]LYIV\^PUN +L TLLZ[
PU OL[ VVN ZWYPUNLUKL VUKLYKLSLU ]HU KL UPL\^IV\^ \P[ KPL
QHYLU ^HYLU KL UPL\^Z[L IL\YZOHS ]HU THHY SPLMZ[ Tõ
[VLU UVN KL :JOLSKLOHS NLUVLTK LLU VU[]HUNZ[OHS ]HU Tõ KPL [V[ (OV` 7SHaH ^LYK NLKVVW[ LU LLU JVTWSLL[ ]LY
UPL\^KL LU[YLL ]VVY OL[ :WVY[WHSLPZ
+HHYUHHZ[ ^LYKLU VVR UPL\^L OVYLJHMHJPSP[LP[LU HSZTLKL
UPL\^L JVUNYLZ LU ]LYNHKLYY\PT[LU LU LLU RHU[VYLUNLIV\^
[VLNL]VLNK LU ]VUK LY LLU \P[IYLPKPUN ]HU KL WHYRLLYNLSLNLU
OLPK WSHH[Z +L THYR[ ISPQM[ ]VVY[K\YLUK PU IL^LNPUN LU (OV`
NPUN OPLYPU TLL 0U [V[HHS ^HZ LY TL[ KL MHJLSPM[ LU KL UPL\^
IV\^ LLU ILKYHN ]HU Y\PT TPSQVLU L\YV [VLU TPSQVLU
N\SKLU NLTVLPK
+P[ IV\^WYVQLJ[ ^LYK VUKLY KL UHHT (OV` NLZ[HY[ VT PU
[L R\UULU ZWLSLU VW KL THYR[VU[^PRRLSPUNLU" UHTLSPQR KL
Z[LLKZ OVNLYL LPZLU KPL HHU LLU T\S[PM\UJ[PVULSL HJJVTTVKH
[PL HSZ (OV` ^LYKLU LU ^VYKLU NLZ[LSK +L JVUZ\TLU[ aPL[ PU
[VLULTLUKL TH[L OL[ ILaVLRLU ]HU LLU IL\YZ HSZ º]YPQL[PQKZ
ILZ[LKPUN» ^HHYKVVY TLLY LU[LY[HPUTLU[ ZOV^LSLTLU[LU LU
KLTVUZ[YH[PLZ ^VYKLU ]LYSHUNK ,LU [YLUK ^HHYVW (OV`
9V[[LYKHT TL[ KL SHH[Z[L YLUV]H[PL OLLM[ PUNLZWLLSK LU OHHY
NHZ[LU ]HU\P[ KL NLOLSL ^LYLSK RHU VU[]HUNLU PU LLU WHZZLU
KL HTIPHUJL
+L SHH[Z[L ]LYIV\^PUN
0U ^LYK ILNVUULU TL[ LLU NYVUKPNL TVKLYUPZLYPUN ]HU
OL[ :WVY[WHSLPZ AV PZ KL ILaVLRLYZJHWHJP[LP[ ]LYNYVV[ UHHY
TLLY KHU TLUZLU LU OLLM[ KL ILSL]PUN ]HU KL ILaVL
RLY IPQaVUKLYL HHUKHJO[ NLRYLNLU KVVY VUKLYTLLY TLLY LU
Y\PTLYL OVYLJH \P[NPM[LW\U[LU /L[ NLIV\^]VS\TL ^LYK
aV]LLS TVNLSPQR PU [HJ[ NLSH[LU" HSSLLU KHHY ^HHY UVKPN PZ LY
LLU \P[IYLPKPUN ]VVYaPLU +L WYVK\J[PL[LJOUPZJOL LPNLUZJOHW
WLU ]HU OL[ NLIV\^ aPQU VWNL^HHYKLLYK VT VUKLY TLLY HHU
KL LPZLU ]HU PU[LYUH[PVUHSL WVWHY[PLZ[LU [L ISPQ]LU ]VSKVLU"
NLIV\^LPNLUHHY 6U[^PRRLSPUNZILKYPQM 9V[[LYKHT NYLLW KL
UVVKaHRLSPQRL YLUV]H[PL HHU VT OL[ :WVY[WHSLPZ aV [L ]LYIV\
^LU KH[ KL HJJVTTVKH[PL IPQ KL ILZ[L ]HU ,\YVWH aHS ISPQ]LU
ILOVYLU ‹
+, )6<>
0U Q\SP NPUN KL LLYZ[L WHHS KL NYVUK PU ]VVY OL[
(OV`»JVTWSL_ +L HHUULTLY ^HZ )V\^RVTIPUH[PL A\PKWSLPU
LLU ZHTLU^LYRPUNZ]LYIHUK ]HU =HU KLY =VYT»Z HHUULTPUNZ
ILKYPQM 5= LU KL 5,+(4 4L[ KLaL IV\^ TVLZ[ 9V[[LYKHT
A\PK LLU PTW\SZ RYPQNLU THHY PU KL ^VVYKLU ]HU [VLUTHSPN
^L[OV\^LY 1 >VYZ[ RYLLN OLLS 9V[[LYKHT LY PL[Z ]HU WSHH[ZL
SPQRL UH[PVUHSL LU aLSMZ PU[LYUH[PVUHSL IL[LRLUPZ IPQ º+L
9V[[LYKHTTLYZ TVL[LU ]LLS NL]LU KLUR THHY HHU KL S\JO[
]LYVU[YLPUPNPUN LU KHHY]VVY TVL[ ^H[ ^VYKLU [LY\NNLKHHU»
;LU ILOVL]L ]HU OL[ NLOLSL JVTWSL_ aPQU OLPWHSLU KVVY
LLU + PUZ[HSSH[PL HHUNLIYHJO[ /L[ NPUN KHHYIPQ VT NLWYLMH
IYPJLLYKL IL[VUWHSLU TL[ LLU NLTPKKLSKL SLUN[L ]HU TL[LY +L SLUN[L ]HU KL WHSLU PZ ILWHHSK UH LLU NYVUKVUKLY
aVLR ^HHYIPQ ISLLR KH[ LY [V[ n TL[LY VUKLY OL[
THHP]LSK ]LLU LU RSLPSHNLU SPNNLU +HHYVUKLY SPNNLU aHUKSH
NLU ]HU WSLPZ[VJLUL VVYZWYVUN ^HHY KL OLPWHSLU VW LU PU Y\Z
[LU+L IV\^ ]HU KL [LU[VVUZ[LSSPUNZOHSSLU LU OL[ ZWVY[JVT
WSL_ ^LYK \P[NL]VLYK PU IL[VU TL[ Z[HSLU ZWHU[LU LU Z[HSLU
KHRWSH[LU [V[ LLU VWWLY]SHR[L ]HU ]PLYRHU[L TL[LY LU
LLU PUOV\K ]HU R\IPLRL TL[LY 6W]HSSLUKL RLUTLY
RLU ]HU OL[ ZWVY[WHSLPZ ^HYLU KL ]HZ[L ^PLSLYIHHU LU KL
TVNLSPQR OLPK VT PU KL WPZ[L LLU PQZIHHU [L PUZ[HSSLYLU
5H OL[ HHUIYLUNLU ]HU KL M\UKLYPUN LU KL VWIV\^ aV\ VW
QHU\HYP WYPUZ *SH\Z OL[ JVTWSL_ VMMPJPLLS VWLULU /PQ
KLLK KH[ PU OL[ IPQaPQU ]HU TPUPZ[LY 2SVTWt LU I\YNLTLLZ[LY
;OVTHZZLU ]HU 9V[[LYKHT 0U ^LYRLSPQROLPK ^HZ OL[ JVTWSL_
HS PU NLIY\PR ^HU[ YLLKZ PU ZLW[LTILY ^HYLU KL [LU
[VVUZ[LSSPUNZOHSSLU NLVWLUK ]VVY KL O\PZOV\KIL\YZ -LTPUH
0UTPKKLSZ OHKKLU HS TLLY KHU TLUZLU KL PUNHUN
NLWHZZLLYK +L VMMPJPwSL VWLUPUN ^HZ ZWLJ[HJ\SHPY 5H KL VWL
UPUNZ[VLZWYHHR ]HU I\YNLTLLZ[LY ;OVTHZZLU ]LYYPJO[[L WYPUZ
*SH\Z KL VWLUPUNZOHUKLSPUN +HHYUH [YHK KL 4HYPUPLYZRHWLS
VW NL]VSNK KVVY LLU Q\KVZOV^ KVVY V\K^LYLSK LU VS`TWPZJO
RHTWPVLU (U[VU .LLZPUR /L[ 9V[[LYKHTZ 7OPSOHYTVUPZJO
6YRLZ[ VUKLY SLPKPUN ]HU ,KV KL >HHY[ aVYNKL ]LY]VSNLUZ ]VVY
T\aPRHSL VTSPQZ[PUN +L VUSHUNZ V]LYSLKLU /HUZ )VZRHTW
OPLSK LLU JVUMLYLUJL V]LY ZWVY[ NL]VSNK KVVY LLU SPJO[ZOV^
VU[^VYWLU KVVY -YHUZL LU 0ZL ]HU /LPUPUNLU
+L UPL\^L ^PLSLYIHHU ^LYK [LUZSV[[L PUNL^PQK TL[ LLU Z[H`
LYZ^LKZ[YPQK ^HHYHHU KL ILZ[L 5LKLYSHUKZL WYVMZ TLLKLKLU
5H KL O\SKPNPUN ]HU KL ^PUUHHY RVU PLKLYLLU aPJO ]LY]VLNLU
HHU KL IHY (OV`» ^HZ KHHYTLL VMMPJPLLS NLVWLUK
/LYPUULYPUNLU HHU (OV`
+L Z[L UV]LTILY ]HU OVVY[ [V[ TPQU HSSLYILZ[L KHNLU
VUKHURZ KH[ PR ]LLY[PN QHHY SH[LY ^LS ^H[ KL[HPSZ R^PQ[ ILU 0U
(OV` [YHK -YHUR AHWWH VW +L ZLYPL JVUJLY[LU TL[ -SV LU ,KK`
/L[ ^HZ LLU TLLY KHU NL^LSKPN JVUJLY[ /L[ ^HZ YVJR YVSS
OL[ ^HZ QHaa OL[ ^HZ JHIHYL[ AHWWH aVUN PU OL[ 5LKLYSHUKZ
OL[ SLNLUKHYPZJOL º.LLM TPQ ^H[ ]SVLYILKLRRPUN VUKLY KLaL
]L[[L a^L]LUKL ZVMH» 5VVP[ ILNYLWLU ^HHY KH[ ]HUKHHU R^HT
4HHY PLKLYLLU PU LLU KL\R /L[ ^HZ LLU aPUKLYLUK JVUJLY[ ,U
HSZ aV ]HHR ZWLLSKL OPQ SHUN KVVY AV SHUN KH[ KL K\PaLUKLU
QVUNLYLU KPL [LY\N YPJO[PUN (TZ[LYKHT VM <[YLJO[ TVLZ[LU
THZZHHS KL SHH[Z[L [YLPU TPZ[LU 5HJO[[YLPULU ILZ[VUKLU UVN
UPL[ (S KH[ ]VSR ISLLM PU JLU[Y\T 9V[[LYKHT OHUNLU >HHY
TVLZ[ QL OLLU& =LLS NLSK HSZ QHYPNL OHK QL UPL[ +H[ ^LYK
2YVUPLR TLP NLOHUN +HU ^LLY PU LLU ZUHJRIHY KHU PU LLU OHS ]HU LLU S\_L
HWWHY[LTLU[LUJVTWSL_ ALSMZ PU LLU [LSLMVVUJLS :[LLKZ R^HT
QL NYVLWQLZ ]VSSLKPN NLS\RRPNL JVUJLY[NHUNLYZ [LNLU /L[ ^HZ
ILZ[ RV\K KPL UHJO[ 4HHY KL Z[LTTPUN ^HZ VWWLYILZ[ ,LU \\Y
]VVY ]LY[YLR OHKKLU º^PQ» KL RSHHYZ[HHUKL LLYZ[L [YLPU UHHY
<[YLJO[ ILaL[ .LLU WSLR TLLY ]YPQ
6U^L[LUKLU KPL Y\PT VW [PQK O\U [YLPU ^PS
KLU ULTLU LU KHJO[LU aLLwU ]HU Y\PT[L [L
OLIILU [YVMMLU [V[ O\U ]LYIPQZ[LYPUN LLU
OLSL [YLPU ]VS ZSHWLYPN PUUPN [L]YLKLU SHUN
OHYPN [\PN HHU
/\\I :HUKLYZ (TZ[LYKHT ‹
(/[email protected] +, ),:;<<93012, .,:*/0,+,50:
6W H\N\Z[\Z ]LYNHKLYKL OL[ ILZ[\\Y ]HU (OV` V]LY KL
VWOHUKLU aPQUKL ]LYWSHH[ZPUN ]HU (OV`» +PL ]LYO\PaPUN ^HZ
UVKPN VTKH[ UH OL[ YLNLYPUNZILZS\P[ LLU TLKPZJOL MHJ\S[LP[ PU
9V[[LYKHT [L ]LZ[PNLU KL NLTLLU[L KPL VWSLPKPUN YVUK
+PQRaPN[ ^PSKL WSHH[ZLU ,URLSL TVNLSPQRL UPL\^L WSLRRLU
^HYLU OL[ ?LY_LZ[LYYLPU 5VVYK OL[ NLIPLK YVUK KL UVVYKL
SPQRL HMYP[ ]HU KL =HU )YPLULUVVYKIY\N LU VVR OL[ [LYYLPU ]HU
/LSPWVY[
/L[ ILZ[\\Y THHR[ aPQU ^LUZLU K\PKLSPQR +L ILSHUNYPQRZ[L
^LUZ PZ ]HUaLSMZWYLRLUK KH[ KL O\PKPNL L_WSVP[H[PL UPL[ ^VYK[
Z[VWNLaL[ ]VVYKH[ LLU UPL\^L SVJH[PL NLYLLK PZ VTKH[ HUKLYZ
9V[[LYKHT HSZ [LU[VVUZ[LSSPUNZZ[HK LYUZ[PN ILUHKLLSK ^VYK[
)LZ[HHUKL IL\YaLU aV\KLU KHU ^LS LLUZ R\UULU \P[^PQRLU
UHHY <[YLJO[ VM (TZ[LYKHT ;VJO ILZS\P[ OL[ NLTLLU[LILZ[\\Y
KH[ OL[ ILZ[HHUKL NLIV\^ ]HUHM QHU\HYP aHS ^VYKLU
HMNLIYVRLU +H[ IL[LRLU[ KH[ LY TPUZ[LUZ LLU QHHY NLLU (OV`
aHS aPQU /L[ ILZ[\\Y ]HU (OV` aHS aVSHUN WYVILYLU VT KL
RSLPULYL L]LULTLU[LU VW HUKLYL SVJH[PLZ PU KL Z[HK VUKLY [L
IYLUNLU" KL ,ULYNPLOHS aV\ UVN ^LS [V[ ]LY PU ILZJOPR
IHHY ISPQ]LU
;PQKLSPQRL SVJH[PL
6W MLIY\HYP IVVN KL NLTLLU[LYHHK aPJO V]LY LLU
]VVYZ[LS ]VVY KL SVJH[PL ]HU LLU [PQKLSPQR [LU[VVUZ[LSSPUNZNL
IV\^ ;^LL SVJH[PLZ ISLRLU NLZJOPR[! PU KL I\\Y[ ]HU KL
,ULYNPLOHS UHIPQ V\KL (OV` VM VW OL[ /LSPWVY[[LYYLPU
/VMKPQR7VTWLUI\YN /L[ ^LYK OL[ /LSPWVY[[LYYLPU
5PL\^L SVJH[PL
6W UV]LTILY SPN[ LY LLU ]VVYZ[LS IPQ KL NLTLLU[L
YHHK V]LY KL IV\^ ]HU LLU UPL\^ [LU[VVUZ[LSSPUNZNLIV\^
UHIPQ OL[ A\PKWSLPU ,Y PZ ^H[ IL[YLM[ KL SVJH[PL VVR UVN
NLKHJO[ HHU OL[ ]VVYTHSPN ?LY_LZ[LYYLPU 5VVYK THHY KH[
aV\ [L ]LLS RVZ[LU VTKH[ LLU KLLS ]HU KH[ [LYYLPU NLIY\PR[ PZ
]VVY KL Z[VY[ ]HU ]\PSUPZ A\PKWSLPU ISLLR KHHYVT IL[LY /L[
NLIV\^ aV\ LLU ILSHUNYPQR LSLTLU[ ^VYKLU ]HU KP[ Z[HKZKLLS
A\PK LU aV\ KL [VLRVTZ[PNL VU[^PRRLSPUN ]HU OL[ Z[HKZKLLS
LLU WVZP[PL]L PTW\SZ TVL[LU NL]LU ,Y ^VYK[ HMNLaPLU ]HU LLU
ZWVY[OHS LU LLU [LU[VVUZ[LSSPUNZNLIV\^ VW ]LYZJOPSSLUKL SVJH
[PLZ ;^LL NLIV\^LU VW ttU SVJH[PL RVZ[LU UHTLSPQR TPUKLY
NLSK LU Y\PT[L 6W UV]LTILY ^VYK[ OL[ ]VVYZ[LS NVLKNL
RL\YK
,Y ]VSNLU UVN KP]LYZL ]VVYZ[LSSLU LU WSHUULU ^HHYIPQ KL
NYVV[Z[L [LNLUZ[LSSPUN PZ KPL [\ZZLU ]VVYZ[HUKLYZ ]HU LLU aLSM
Z[HUKPN (OV`» LU KPLNLULU KPL TLULU KH[ OL[ VUKLY KL
NLTLLU[L TVL[ ISPQ]LU AV ^PS KL KPYLJ[L\Y ]HU OL[ ZWVY[WH
SLPZ /HYY` /VMTLLZ[LY KL ILPKL [HRRLU ]HU (OV`» ZWVY[ LU
[LUZ[VVUZ[LSSPUNZY\PT[L ISPQ]LUK PU[LNYLYLU HSZ LLU aLSMZ[HUKP
NL LLUOLPK
+L KPYLJ[L\YLU ]HU ]LYZJOPSSLUKL NLTLLU[LSPQRL KPLUZ[LU ^PS
SLU OL[ JVTWSL_ NYHHN IPQ O\U KPLUZ[ PUSPQ]LU ,Y ]VSNLU VUKLY
aVLRLU LU \P[NLIYLPKL KPZJ\ZZPLZ
>L[OV\KLY 1VOHU KL 1VUN TLSK[ KHHYVW ILNPU KH[ \P[
VUKLYaVLR PZ NLISLRLU KH[ (OV`» VUKLYNLIYHJO[ TVL[ ^VYKLU
IPQ LLU NYV[LYL KPLUZ[ aVHSZ KL KPLUZ[ NLTLLU[LSPQRL R\UZ[NL
IV\^LU VM KL KPLUZ[ :WVY[ LU 9LJYLH[PL +L Z[PJO[PUN (OV`» aHS
HSZ NL]VSN KHHY]HU ^VYKLU NLSPX\PKLLYK )LNPU THHY[ TLSK[
+L 1VUN KH[ OPQ TLLY ZWVY[ ^PS PU (OV`» /PQ ILUHKY\R[ UVN
LLUZ KH[ (OV`» NLLU HWHY[L KPLUZ[ aHS ^VYKLU IPUULU KL
NLTLLU[L LU OPQ aV\ NYHHN aPLU KH[ OL[ ^LYK VUKLYNLIYHJO[
IPQ KL KPLUZ[ 9LJYLH[PL LU ZWVY[ ^HHY OPQ ^L[OV\KLY ]HU PZ
+L OLSL aHHR PZ VTNL]LU KVVY KP]LYZL JVUMSPJ[LU ;\ZZLU
KPYLJ[L\YLU ]HU NLTLLU[LSPQRL KPLUZ[LU LU KL KPYLJ[PL ]HU
(OV`» [\ZZLU KL ILPKL KPYLJ[L\YLU ]HU (OV`» *VYWLSLPQU LU
/VMTLLZ[LY [\ZZLU OL[ WLYZVULLS LU KL NLTLLU[L (HU KL
VUY\Z[ RVT[ LLU LPUKL KVVY OL[ ]LY[YLR ]HU *VYWLSLPQU LU
/VMTLLZ[LY ^HHYUH KL NLTLLU[LYHHK VW KLJLTILY ILZS\P[
VT OLLS (OV`» [PQKLSPQR VUKLY [L IYLUNLU IPQ +:9 6W Q\UP
ILZS\P[ KL NLTLLU[LYHHK KH[ (OV`» KLMPUP[PLM IPQ +:9
^VYK[ VUKLYNLIYHJO[
0U KLJLTILY NPUN KL .LTLLU[LYHHK HRRVVYK TL[ LLU
]VVYZ[LS VT Y\PT ]LLY[PLU TPSQVLU N\SKLU ILZJOPRIHHY [L Z[LS
SLU ]VVY KL \P[IYLPKPUN ]HU OL[ JVTWSL_ ;L]LUZ UHT KL YHHK
KL TV[PL3PU[OVYZ[ HHU /L[ ]VVYZ[LS LU KL TV[PL OPUNLU TL[
LSRHHY ZHTLU +L \P[IYLPKPUN ^HZ UVKPN VT (OV`» PU Z[HH[ [L
Z[LSSLU NYV[LYL IL\YaLU LU L]LULTLU[LU HHU [L [YLRRLU KHU
^LS [L ILOV\KLU 6TKH[ KLaL \P[IYLPKPUN LLU MPUHUJPLLS YPZPJV
TL[ aPJO TLLIYHJO[ LU LLU aLSMZ[HUKPNLY (OV`» ^LSSPJO[ IL[LY
RVU VWLYLYLU VW KL IL\YaLUTHYR[ ^LYK KL TV[PL 3PU[OVYZ[
HHUNLUVTLU +VVY KLaL TV[PL ^LYK (OV`» aLSM ]LYHU[^VVYKL
SPQR ]VVY KL JVTTLYJPwSL HJX\PZP[PL LU OL[ VYNHUPZLYLU ]HU
IL\YaLU LU L]LULTLU[LU /L[ ]VVYZ[LS LU KL TV[PL \P[ Z[HHU aV HHU KL IHZPZ ]HU KL SH[LYL ]LYaLSMZ[HUKPNPUN ]HU
(OV`»
1HYLU [HJO[PN
1HYLU aL]LU[PN
/LYZ[Y\J[\YLYPUN (OV`»
0U ]HS[ OL[ ILZS\P[ VT :WVY[WHSLPZ (OV`» VUKLY [L IYLUNLU
IPQ KL UPL\^ [L Z[PJO[LU +PLUZ[ ]VVY :WVY[ LU 9LJYLH[PL +:9
THHY KVVY OL[ ]VVYULTLU VT VVR OL[ [LU[VVUZ[LSSPUNZNLKLLS[L
OPLYIPQ VUKLY [L IYLUNLU ^VYKLU KL WSHUULU ]VVYSVWPN \P[NL
Z[LSK ,PUK ]VSN[ LLU ZVVY[NLSPQR WSHU 7LY ZLW[LTILY
^VYK[ KL ^L[OV\KLY :WVY[ LU 9LJYLH[PL ]VVYaP[[LY ]HU KL
:[PJO[PUN (OV`»" KPL ^VYK[ ]LY]VSNLUZ VWNLOL]LU LU KL ZLJYL
[HYPLHMKLSPUN ]HU :9 ULLT[ KL HJ[P]P[LP[LU ^HHY LU KL
ILZSPZZPUN V]LY VUKLYIYLUNPUN (OV`» ^VYK[ \P[NLZ[LSK [V[ KL
[^LLKL OLSM[ ]HU /L[ ILZ[\\Y ]HU KL :[PJO[PUN PZ LYN ]LY
KLLSK V]LY KL WSHUULU THHY OL[ NLTLLU[LILZ[\\Y PZ ]HU VVY
KLLS KH[ KL WSHUULU TVL[LU ^VYKLU \P[NL]VLYK LU ULLT[
aPJO ]VVY KLaL ^LSKYH ]VVY KL .LTLLU[LYHHK [L IYLUNLU /L[
(OV`» WLYZVULLS ^VYK[ TLKLaLNNLUZJOHW ILSVVMK LU LY ^VYK[
LLU 76* 7LYZVULLSZ 6]LYSLN *VTTPZZPL ]HU (OV`» VWNLYPJO[
2YVUPLR TLP +L QHYLU [HJO[PN Z[VUKLU ]VVYHS PU OL[ [LRLU ]HU KL WYP]H[PZL
YPUN =PQM ]LYZJOPSSLUKL PU[LYPT KPYLJ[L\YLU Z[VUKLU PU KLaL
YVLYPNL WLYPVKL HHU OL[ OVVMK ]HU (OV`» =HUHM ^HZ KH[
*VJR /VLR^H[LY /PQ ^LYK KL LLYZ[L HSNLTLLU KPYLJ[L\Y ]HU
aV^LS OL[ (OV`»JVTWSL_ HSZ ]HU KL UPL\^ VWNLYPJO[L 5=
(OV`» :PUKZ ILZ[VUK UHTLSPQR KL ]VSNLUKL JVUZ[Y\J[PL!
KL NLTLLU[L ISLLM LPNLUHHY ]HU OL[ JVTWSL_ ^HHYUHHZ[
,_WSVP[H[PLTHH[ZJOHWWPQ (OV`» 5= LU :[PJO[PUN
(KTPUPZ[YH[PLRHU[VVY (OV`» ^LYKLU VWNLYPJO[ +L NLTLLU[L
KYVLN OHHY HHUKLSLU V]LY HHU OL[ (KTPUPZ[YH[PLRHU[VVY /L[
(KTPUPZ[YH[PLRHU[VVY ^HZ HHUKLLSOV\KLY ]HU KL 5= LU NHM
JLY[PMPJH[LU \P[ HHU KL NLTLLU[L ^HHYKVVY KL NLTLLU[L TLL
KLLSKL PU L]LU[\LSL ^PUZ[LU LU OL[ YLJO[ ]LYRYLLN VW PUMVYTH
[PL LU OL[ IPQ^VULU ]HU HHUKLLSOV\KLYZ]LYNHKLYPUNLU
+L 5= OHK HSZ ILSHUNYPQRZ[L KVLSZ[LSSPUN VT LPNLU IL\YaLU
V]LY [L ULTLU [L VYNHUPZLYLU KHU ^LS [L VU[^PRRLSLU
6W TLP ZJOYPQ]LU LURLSL WLYZVULLSZSLKLU ]HU (OV`»
LLU IYPLM HHU OL[ JVSSLNL ]HU )> AL aPQU ILaVYNK V]LY OL[
[LY\NSVWLUKL WLYZVULLSZILZ[HUK ]HU OL[ RHKLY 0U ILZ[VUK OL[ RHKLY UVN \P[ aL]LU WLYZVULU" ZPUKZ UVN
THHY \P[ KYPL THU 4L[ aV ^LPUPN RHKLYSLKLU PZ OL[ HS aLLY
TVLPSPQR VT KL O\PKPNL ^LYRaHHTOLKLU [V[ LLU NVLK LPUK [L
IYLUNLU LU OL[ VU[^PRRLSLU ]HU UPL\^L L]LULTLU[LU PZ OPLY
KVVY ]YPQ^LS VUTVNLSPQR ;L]LUZ PZ LLU HHU[HS M\UJ[PLZ ZHTLU
NL]VLNK ^HHYKVVY KLaL WLY ZHSKV LLU Z[\R a^HHYKLY aPQU
NL^VYKLU /PLY Z[HH[ LJO[LY NLLU LURLSL MPUHUJPwSL ]LYNVLKPUN
[LNLUV]LY VUKHURZ KL MPUHUJPwSL Y\PT[L KPL KVVY KL PURYPT
WPUN ]YPQ R^HT +L WLYZVULLSZSLKLU ^PQ[LU OL[ ]LY[YLR ]HU
>PT )\P[LUKPQR OVVMK :WVY[WHSLPZ HHU KLaL VTZ[HUKPNOLKLU
/L[ WLYZVULLS THHR[ aPJO NYV[L aVYNLU V]LY KL [VLRVTZ[ ]HU
(OV`» LU ]YHHN[ OL[ JVSSLNL VT K\PKLSPQROLPK [L ZJOLWWLU V]LY
OL[ WVSP[PLRL ILSLPK VT[YLU[ OL[ :WVY[WHSLPZ OL[ WLYZVULLSZIL
SLPK ]HU OL[ :WVY[WHSLPZ LU KL VW]VSNPUN ]HU >PT )\P[LUKPQR
)\P[LUKPQR LU *VJR /VLR^H[LY RVTLU PU Q\UP PU OL[ =YPQL =VSR
HHU OL[ ^VVYK +L OLYLU ZWYLRLU aPJO \P[ V]LY (OV`» IPUULU
KL NLTLLU[LSPQRL YLNLSZ AL aPQU ]HU TLUPUN KH[ PU PLKLY NL]HS
LLU HHU[HS ]HU KPL YLNLSZ UPL[ ^LYRLU ]VVY (OV`» 6]LY OL[
ILSLPK ]HU KL NLTLLU[L ]VVY (OV`» PZ )\P[LUKPQR UPL[ NVLK [L
ZWYLRLU =VSNLUZ OLT ^HZ LY UVVP[ LLU K\PKLSPQR ILSLPK LU U\
UVN aP[ OL[ WLYZVULLS TL[ NYV[L ]YHHN[LRLUZ V]LY ^H[ )>
WYLJPLZ ^PS /L[ ]LYTPUKLYKL WLYZVULLS OLLM[ PU]SVLK VW
(OV`» aV PZ OL[ HHU[HS L]LULTLU[LUKHNLU HMNLUVTLU UL[ HSZ
KL ILaVLRLYZHHU[HSSLU +P[ OLLM[ VUKLY HUKLYL [L THRLU TL[
OL[ :WVY[WHSLPZ 0U KL QHYLU ^LYK LLU MSPURL NYVLP ]LY^HJO[
VW OL[ NLIPLK ]HU PUKVVYZWVY[LU THHY HJO[LYHM ISLLR KP[
[LNLU [L ]HSSLU )PUULUZWVY[L]LULTLU[LU ULTLU KHU VVR HM
/VLR^H[LY ^PQZ[ LY ]LYKLY VW KH[ aL LY IPQ (OV`» VVR UPL[ TLLY
HHU [VLRVTLU VT aLSM L]LULTLU[LU [L VU[^PRRLSLU +H[ RVZ[
PTTLYZ ]LLS [PQK LU LULYNPL +PL aPQU LY UPL[ ^HU[ OL[ RVZ[ OL[
WLYZVULLS HS TVLP[L NLUVLN VT OL[ ILZ[HHUKL WYVNYHTTH [L
KYHHPLU
/VLR^H[LY KLUR[ KH[ LY IPQ KL NLTLLU[L ^LPUPN ILNYPW ILZ[HH[
]VVY (OV`» =VSNLUZ )\P[LUKPQR TVL[ (OV`» NLY\UK ^VYKLU
aVHSZ KH[ PU OL[ ILKYPQMZSL]LU NL^VVU PZ K\Z TL[ LLU KPYLJ[L\Y
HHU OL[ OVVMK ]HU LLU 5= KPL ]LYHU[^VVYKPUN ZJO\SKPN PZ HHU
aPQU 9HHK ]HU *VTTPZZHYPZZLU /VLR^H[LY ^PS KH[ \P[LPUKLSPQR
]VVY (OV`» THHY ]LY^HJO[ KH[ LY ^LPUPN ^PUZ[ ]HS[ [L THRLU
TL[ OL[ :WVY[WHSLPZ
+VVY KL Q\YPKPZJOL JVUZ[Y\J[PL OHK /VLR^H[LY LLU K\IILSL
WL[ VW OPQ ^HZ HTI[LUHHY PU KPLUZ[ ]HU KL NLTLLU[L LU TVLZ[
VVR ]LYHU[^VVYKPUN HMSLNNLU HHU KL 9HHK ]HU
*VTTPZZHYPZZLU ]HU KL 5= +H[ SL]LYKL JVUMSPJ[LU VW ^HHY
KVVY /VLR^H[LY PU HWYPS ]LY[YVR 5H ^LLY [^LL PU[LYPT
KPYLJ[L\YLU [YHK PU HWYPS 1HHW 4VY[PLY PU KPLUZ[ KL SHH[Z[L
PU[LYPTKPYLJ[L\Y
0U TLP ^VYK[ LY LLU ]VVYZ[LS HHU KL NLTLLU[LYHHK ]VVY
NLSLNK TL[ IL[YLRRPUN [V[ KL ]VSSLKPNL ]LYaLSMZ[HUKPNPUN ]HU
(OV`» 4LU ^HZ LY HJO[LY NLRVTLU KH[ KL ILZ[HHUKL ZJOLP
KPUN [\ZZLU OL[ [LU[VVUZ[LSSPUNZNLKLLS[L LU OL[ :WVY[WHSLPZ LLU
VW[PTHSL ILU\[[PUN ]HU OL[ HSNLOLSL JVTWSL_ PU KL ^LN Z[VUK
+L 9]* SPL[ K\PKLSPQR TLYRLU ]VVY LLU ]VSSLKPN ]LYaLSMZ[HUKPNK
(OV`» [L aPQU +HHYVW PZ LLU HHU[HS VUKLYaVLRLU NLKHHU LU
YHWWVY[LU VWNLZ[LSK KVVY L_[LYUL WHY[PQLU (HU KL OHUK ]HU
KPL YHWWVY[LU PZ ILZSV[LU VT (OV`» ]VSSLKPN aLSMZ[HUKPN [L
THRLU +L HS LLYKLY NLMVYT\SLLYKL KVLSZ[LSSPUNLU ]HU WYP]H[P
ZLYPUN aPQU KH[ KL ILZ[\\YZRYHJO[ TVL[ ^VYKLU ]LYNYVV[ HSZVVR
KL ILOLLYZRYHJO[ LU KL MSL_PIPSP[LP[ =VSNLUZ KL VWZ[LSSLYZ ]HU
OL[ ]VVYZ[LS aP[ (OV`» ^H[ KP[ IL[YLM[ VW OL[ NVLKL ZWVVY
/LYPUULYPUNLU HHU (OV`
(OV` 5H[\\YSPQR ILRLUK ]HU KL JVUJLY[LU! )VI +`SHU :[PUN 4HYJV )VYZH[V TL[ TPQU
IYVLY[QL a\Z LU aVVU TL[ NYH[PZ RHHY[QLZ LU HHUZ[LRLYZ LU [PZZ\LZ ]HU TPQU ]HKLY
THHY VVR 3HZ[ 5PNO[ VM [OL 7YVTZ LU LLU VYRLZ[ KH[ HSSL ILRLUKL RSHZZPLRLYZ [LU NLOV
YL IYLUN[
4HHY OL[ SL\RZ[ ^HZ OL[ TPZZJOPLU UVN ^LS VT TL[ KL RPUKLYLU UHHY -V_ 2PKZ 7SHUL[Z
3P]L [L NHHU /L[ QVUNL W\ISPLR ^HZ HS SHUN ]VVY OL[ L]LULTLU[ ILNVU PU KL Z[LT
TPUN! VUKLY SLPKPUN ]HU ILRLUKL WYLZLU[H[VYLU ]HU KL [] VLMLUKLU ^L ]HZ[ LLU SPLK
KH[ SH[LY \P[I\UKPN TVLZ[ ^VYKLU TLLNLaVUNLU +L WHWHZ LU THTHZ KLKLU UH[\\Y
SPQR TLL 6VR PR SPL[ TL ]HU TPQU ILZ[L RHU[ aPLU LU aVUN TLL TL[ 2 LU 1VK` )LYUHS
,Y [YHK VVR LLU ,UNLSZL aHUNLY VW PR ^LL[ aPQU UHHT UPL[ TLLY LU NLS\RRPN! UH LLU
TPQ VUILRLUK U\TTLY aVUN OPQ LLU SPLKQL KH[ PR ^LS NVLK RLUKL ,Y aH[ LLU OVNL \P[
OHHS PU THHY ^H[ RVU OL[ TPQ ZJOLSLU! ^L KLKLU TL[ aPQU HSSLU TLL[VJO& /LSHHZ! KL
QVUNLU aVUN LLU SPLKQL \P[ KL V\KL KVVZ (SSLLU PR HSZ ^H[ V\KLYL TVLKLY OHK OL[
LLYKLY NLOVVYK ;QH PR OHK ^LS ILRPQRZ THHY VM KL RPUKLYLU KHHY U\ aV ISPQ TLL
^HYLU&
(UULYPL[ /HNLU 3LPKLU ‹
2YVUPLR TLP +L ILZ[\\YZRYHJO[ ]HU (OV`» ^VYK[ ]LYNYVV[ KVVY KL L_WSVP[H
[PL HHU KL 5= V]LY [L KYHNLU +HHYTLL ^VYK[ KL NLTLLU[L
]LYSVZ[ ]HU KL KL[HPSZ LU OVLM[ aPQ LPNLUSPQR HSSLLU THHY [L
JVU[YVSLYLU VM KL MPUHUJPwSL KVLSZ[LSSPUNLU ]HU (OV`» ^VYKLU
NLOHHSK +L ILOLLYZIHHYOLPK ^VYK[ VT KLaLSMKL YLKLU VVR
]LYNYVV[ [L]LUZ PZ LY LLU LLUK\PKPNL MPUHUJPwSL YLSH[PL TL[ KL
NLTLLU[L +L MSL_PIPSP[LP[ ^VYK[ VVR ]LYNYVV[ VTKH[ (OV`»
UPL[ TLLY OVLM[ TLL [L KVLU HHU KL NLIY\PRLSPQRL ILZS\P[]VY
TPUNZWYVJLK\YLZ 6VR RHU OL[ WLYZVULLS MSL_PILS ^VYKLU
PUNLaL[ PL[Z ^H[ UPL[ TVNLSPQR ^HZ KVVY KL YLJO[ZWVZP[PL ]HU
HTI[LUHYLU PU NLTLLU[LKPLUZ[ +L RL\aL ]VVY KL Q\YPKPZJOL
]VYT 5= ^VYK[ NLOHUKOHHMK
>LS PZ LY LLU HHU[HS ]VVY^HHYKLU ^HHYHHU ]VSKHHU TVL[ ^VY
KLU ]VVY LLU Z\JJLZ]VSSL ]LYaLSMZ[HUKPNPUN AV TVL[ (OV`» aV
^VYKLU PUNLYPJO[ KH[ LY PU KL [VLRVTZ[ LLU TVNLSPQROLPK
ILZ[HH[ KH[ KLaL ZLSMZ\WWVY[PUN ^VYK[ LU TVL[ TLU UPL[ ]LY
^HJO[LU KH[ OL[ :WVY[WHSLPZ VW RVY[L [LYTPQU LLU OVNLYL
ILaL[[PUNZNYHHK RLU[ /L[ [LU[VVUZ[LSSPUNZNLKLLS[L RHU ^LS
MSPUR ]LYIL[LYLU TP[Z TLLY LPNLU IL\YaLU ^VYKLU VU[^PRRLSK
OL[ NLIV\^ ^VYK[ VWNLRUHW[ LU LY TPUKLY ]HZ[ WLYZVULLS PU
KPLUZ[ PZ
+L VWZ[LSSLYZ ]HU OL[ ]VVYZ[LS ^PQRLU LJO[LY HM ]HU OL[ YHWWVY[
^H[ IL[YLM[ OL[ :WVY[WHSLPZ /L[ :WVY[WHSLPZ ]VYT[ LLU NYVV[
MPUHUJPLLS YPZPJV LU OL[ PZ aLLY ^HHYZJOPQUSPQR KH[ KL NLTLLU[L
MPUHUJPwSL VUKLYZ[L\UPUN TVL[ IPLKLU +L VWZ[LSSLYZ ]HU OL[
]VVYZ[LS ^PQaLU LY LJO[LY VW KH[ OL[ NLIY\PR ]HU OL[
:WVY[WHSLPZ aPJO ^PQaPN[ TPUKLY ZWVY[ TLLY JVUJLY[LU LK
LU KH[ aPQ LY TLLY OLPS PU aPLU VT OL[ JVTWSL_ HSZ LLU NLOLLS
[L ILZJOV\^LU
+L 1HHYIL\YZ LU KL 9(0 aPQU ]VVY (OV`» [L NYVV[ VT TLL [L
R\UULU JVUJ\YYLYLU +HHYVT TVL[ (OV`» aPJO YPJO[LU VW LLU
]PLY[HS [`WLU IL\YaLU KPL PUZWLSLU VW KL \UPLRL WVZP[PL ]HU
(OV`» AV aPQU LY KL IL\YaLU PU O\U ILNPUMHZL KPL KHU PU LLU
YLSH[PLM RSLPULYL HJJVTTVKH[PL R\UULU ^VYKLU NL[LZ[ ,LU
HUKLYL NYVLW PZ KL IL\YaLU TL[ LLU YLNPVUHSL IL[LRLUPZ +HU
aPQU LY UVN KL IL\YaLU KPL X\H [OLTH aV TL[ 9V[[LYKHT LU
VTZ[YLRLU aPQU ]LYIVUKLU KH[ (OV`» HS[PQK KL TLLZ[ SVNPZJOL
RL\aL ]VVY aV»U IL\YZ aHS aPQU +L ]PLYKL NYVLW ILZ[HH[ \P[ KL
PUJPKLU[LSL IL\YaLU KPL IL[YLRRPUN OLIILU VW HJ[\LSL NLIL\Y
[LUPZZLU YVUK 9V[[LYKHT
/L[ :WVY[WHSLPZ OLLM[ NYVLPTVNLSPQROLKLU VW OL[ NLIPLK ]HU
ZWVY[L]LULTLU[LU LU WVWJVUJLY[LU (OV`» OLLM[ UHTLSPQR LLU
NVLKL UHHT VW KP[ NLIPLK +L UHKY\R RVT[ ]VVYHS VW WVW
JVUJLY[LU [L SPNNLU HHUNLaPLU KPL PU LLU ILOVLM[L ]VVYaPLU
LU ]LLS QVUN W\ISPLR [YLRRLU
5HKH[ KL ]VSSLKPNL ]LYaLSMZ[HUKPNPUN PU NHUN ^HZ NLaL[ VW QHU\HYP R^HT OL[ HS ZULS [V[ LLU HHU[HS ILZ[\\YSPQRL WYV
ISLTLU /L[ ILZ[\\Y ]HU (OV`» ^HZ LY ]HU V]LY[\PNK KH[ LY TPSQVLU N\SKLU UVKPN ^HZ VT HJO[LYZ[HSSPN VUKLYOV\K ^LN [L
^LYRLU KL NLTLLU[L ^PSKL LJO[LY UPL[ TLLY IPLKLU KHU TPSQVLU 6W ZLW[LTILY ^LYK LLU [PQKLSPQR ILZ[\\Y PU
OL[ SL]LU NLYVLWLU ILZ[HHUKL \P[ HTI[LUHYLU +PL HTI[LUH
YLU TVLZ[LU ]VVY HWYPS RVTLU TL[ LPNLU ]VVYZ[LSSLU
]VVY TVNLSPQRL HUKLYL Z[Y\J[\YLU ]VVY VYNHUPZH[PL LU MPUHU
JPwU
>H[ OPLYIPQ HSZ LLU WYVISLLT ^LYK LY]HYLU ^HZ KH[ (OV`»UPL[
ZSLJO[Z LLU JVTTLYJPLLS ILKYPQM ^HZ THHY VTKH[ KL NLTLLU
[L LPNLUHHY ^HZ (OV`» VVR LLU THH[ZJOHWWLSPQRL YVS TVLZ[
]LY]\SSLU
2YVUPLR TLP +L UPL\^L KPYLJ[L\Y 1HHW 4VY[PLY RYLLN aPQU TPSQVLU N\S
KLU ]VVY KL YLUV]H[PL ]HU OL[ NLIV\^ APQU [^LLKL WYPVYP[LP[
^HZ KL VYNHUPZH[PL ^HHY OL[ LPNLUSPQR HHU VU[IYHR ,LU HHU[HS
TLUZLU ^PZ[ ^H[ LY TVLZ[ NLIL\YLU LU ]VVY KL YLZ[ SPLWLU LY
]LLS ]LYZJOPSSLUKL TLUZLU YVUK aV^LS \P[ HTI[LSPQRL RYPUNLU
HSZ \P[ OL[ ILKYPQMZSL]LU 4VY[PLY TVLZ[ KPL HSSLTHHS LLU
HYILPKZJVU[YHJ[ HHUIPLKLU IPQ KL 5= 4VY[PLY IYHJO[ OLU WLY
ZVVUSPQRL LPNLU ]LYHU[^VVYKLSPQROLPK IPQ LU NHM (OV`» \P[LPU
KLSPQR aPQU HTIP[PL [LY\N 5PL[ PLKLYLLU RVU TL[ OLT VWZJOPL
[LU THHY aPQU ^LYR KLLK OPQ NVLK
,Y TVLZ[ ZULS ^VYKLU ILNVUULU TL[ KL YLUV]H[PL 6UKHURZ
KH[ PU HS NLKHJO[ ^LYK HHU YLUV]LYLU R^HT LY WHZ PU
PL[Z ]HU KL NYVUK 0U ]VVYNHHUKL QHYLU ^HZ LY VU]VS
KVLUKL I\KNL[ ILZJOPRIHHY VT OL[ JVTWSL_ [L R\UULU VUKLY
OV\KLU ;PQKLUZ KL YLUV]H[PL ^LYK LY]VVY NLRVaLU VT KL
L_WSVP[H[PL ]HU (OV`» NL^VVU KYHHPLUKL [L OV\KLU 0U KL
V]LYNHUNZWLYPVKL [\ZZLU OL[ [PQKLSPQRL NLIV\^ HHU KL /VMKPQR
LU OL[ O\PKPNL NLIV\^ aH[ (OV`» UHTLSPQR aVUKLY NLIV\^
ULNLU THHUKLU SHUN 0U KPL WLYPVKL PZ 9V[[LYKHT [^LL NYV[L
IL\YaLU R^PQ[NLYHHR[ KPL ^LRLU \P[ UHHY (TZ[LYKHT LU
<[YLJO[ +P[ TVLZ[ U\ UH[\\YSPQR ]VVYRVTLU ^VYKLU +L
L_WSVP[H[PL LU KL YLUV]H[PL ]VUKLU KHHYVT UHHZ[ LSRHHY WSHH[Z
+P[ OHK OLLS ^H[ ]VL[LU PU KL HHYKL (UQH :JOVS[LU U\
*VTT\UPJH[PVUZ ,_LJ\[P]L OLYPUULY[ aPJO KH[ OL[ PUKLYKHHK
I\ZPULZZ HZ \Z\HS ^HZ KL OHSSLU ISL]LU VWLU LU KL L]LUL
TLU[LU TVLZ[LU KVVYNHHU /L[ WLYZVULLS OHK OPLY ^LS VUKLY
[L SPQKLU AV ^LYK OL[ ^H[LY SHUNL [PQK HMNLZSV[LU LU TVLZ[ OL[
WLYZVULLS NLIY\PR THRLU ]HU KL UVVK[VPSL[[LU VW OL[ HSNLTL
UL WHYRLLY[LYYLPU
1HYLU ULNLU[PN
0U ^LYK >PT :JOPWWLY HSNLTLLU KPYLJ[L\Y LU OPLYTLL
ILNVU LLU Z\JJLZ]VSSL WLYPVKL ]VVY (OV` :JOPWWLY ^HZ LLU
LULYNPLR LU LU[OV\ZPHZ[L (TZ[LYKHTTLY KPL TL[ ]LLS LSHU
UPL\^L L]LULTLU[LU PU[YVK\JLLYKL 4L[ aPQU HPTHILSL WLY
ZVVUSPQROLPK aVYNKL :JOPWWLY VVR ]VVY OHYTVUPL IPUULU (OV`
^H[ UH[\\YSPQR VVR aPQU ^LLYZSHN OHK VW KL I\P[LU^LYLSK /L[
WLYZVULLS OHK ^LS L]LU KL [PQK UVKPN VT HHU OLT [L ^LUULU
=HU ZLW[LTILY [V[ ZLW[LTILY ^LYK (OV`» ]LY
IV\^K HSZ VUKLYKLLS ]HU OL[ aVNLOL[LU (OV`» WYVQLJ[
=HUHM ^HZ LY NL^LYR[ HHU WSHUULU ]VVY YLUV]H[PL LU \P[
IYLPKPUN LU LLU RSLPUL OVUKLYK[HS YHWWVY[LU ^LYK VWNLZ[LSK
,URLSL WYVISLTLU Z[VUKLU KL WSHUULU PU KL ^LN AV aV\ LY
LLU TL[YV]LYIPUKPUN UHHY 9PKKLYRLYR RVTLU KPL ]SHR SHUNZ
(OV`» aV\ SVWLU ,U KL TPSPL\IL^LNPUN ^PSKL WLY ZL UPL[ KH[
LUPNL \P[IYLPKPUN ]HU (OV` [LU RVZ[L aV\ NHHU ]HU OL[
A\PKLYWHYR ;L]LUZ ^HZ KL NLTLLU[L HHU]HURLSPQR UPL[ LYN
LU[OV\ZPHZ[ 7HZ PU R^HT OL[ LY KHHK^LYRLSPQR ]HU ;VLU
^LYK OL[ WSHU VWNLWHR[ HHU KL RHU[ ]HU KL NLTLLU[L KVVY
LLU WHHY HTI[LUHYLU LU ^L[OV\KLY :PTVUZ )V]LUKPLU Z[LSKL
KL NLTLLU[L KL TPSQVLU N\SKLU ILZJOPRIHHY KPL UVN VU[
IYHRLU +L WSHUULU aPQU KPYLJ[ KVVYNLaL[ LU TLU ILNVU TL[
IV\^LU
;VLU KL LLYZ[L WHHS KL NYVUK PU NPUN ^HZ UVN UPL[ K\PKLSPQR
OVL OL[ LPUKYLZ\S[HH[ LY \P[ aV\ NHHU aPLU ,Y ^HYLU ^LS MPUHU
JPwSL HUHS`ZLZ LU HY[PZ[ PTWYLZZPVUZ THHY KL L_HJ[L PU]\SSPUN
Z[VUK UVN UPL[ ]HZ[ +HHYVT ^LYK LY NLK\YLUKL KL IV\^ VU[
^VYWLU +LaL TL[OVKL IYLUN[ LLU NYV[L MSL_PIPSP[LP[ TL[ aPJO
TLL THHY KL RHUZ KH[ OL[ I\KNL[ ^VYK[ V]LYZJOYLKLU PZ VVR
NYV[LY 6T KP[ [L VUKLY]HUNLU ^LYK LY ^LRLSPQRZ ]LYNHKLYK
TL[ KL IL[YVRRLULU NLTLLU[L HYJOP[LJ[LU IV\^LYZ LU
(OV`» 6W IHZPZ ]HU OL[ V]LYSLN JV€YKPULLYKL (OV`» OL[
IV\^WYVJLZ (S[PQK ^LYKLU [^LL KVLSLU UHNLZ[YLLMK UPL[ [L
OVNL RVZ[LU LU VWLU PU ZLW[LTILY <P[LPUKLSPQR SPLWLU
KL RVZ[LU VW [V[ TPSQVLU N\SKLU ]PQM TPSQVLU TLLY KHU
ILNYVV[
+L TLLZ[ PU OL[ VVN ZWYPUNLUKL VUKLYKLSLU ]HU KL UPL\^
IV\^ ^HYLU LLU [LU[VVUZ[LSSPUNZOHS ]HU Y\PT T
:JOLSKLOHS LLU VU[]HUNZ[ OHS ]HU T (OV`» WSHaH
LLU UPL\^L LU[YLL ]VVY OL[ :WVY[WHSLPZ YLZ[H\YHU[Z RHU[VYLU
LU LLU JVUNYLZ LU ]LYNHKLYY\PT[L )V]LUKPLU ^LYK KL PUMYH
Z[Y\J[\\Y ]LYIL[LYK LU OL[ HHU[HS WHYRLLYWSHH[ZLU MVYZ \P[NL
IYLPK /L[ ]YVLNLYL JPYJ\SH[VYP\T PZ NYVUKPN VUKLY OHUKLU
NLUVTLU LURLS KL ]SVLY LU KL RVSVTTLU ISL]LU NLZWHHYK
/PLY PZ U\ (OV`» 7SHaH ]HU NLTHHR[ TL[ VUKLY HUKLYL LLU
JHMt LU LLU YLZ[H\YHU[ (HU OL[ (OV`» 7SHaH PZ LLU NYV[L
LU[YLLOHS NLIV\^K +VVY OL[ NLIY\PR ]HU LLU NYV[L OVL]LLS
OLPK NSHZ PZ KL LU[YLL ]LLS V]LYaPJO[LSPQRLY KHU ]YVLNLY =HU
I\P[LU PZ OL[ W\ISPLR HS [L aPLU /LSLTHHS HHU KL HUKLYL RHU[
]HU (OV`» 7SHaH ]LYYLLZ LLU RHU[VVYNLIV\^ ]VVY KL TLKL
^LYRLYZ 0U KP[ NLIV\^ KYPL ]LYKPLWPUNLU OVVN aPQU RHU[VYLU
LU ]LYNHKLYY\PT[LZ NLO\PZ]LZ[ L]LUHSZ KL RHU[PUL LU KP]LYZL
VWZSHNY\PT[LZ +L HS ILZ[HHUKL OHSSLU aPQU NLYLUV]LLYK LU
]VVYaPLU ]HU KL ILUVKPNKL OVYLJH LU ZHUP[HPYL ]VVYaPLUPU
NLU THHY VVR IPQ]VVYILLSK KL ]LYSPJO[PUN PZ HHUNLWHR[
5H KL VWLUPUN K\\YKL OL[ UVN L]LU ]VVYKH[ (OV` ^LLY SLRRLY
PU aPQU QHZQL aH[ 4L[ KL UPL\^L PUMYHZ[Y\J[\\Y ^HZ OL[ ]VVY OL[
WLYZVULLS HHUWV[LU NLISHaLU VT HSSLZ aV [L SH[LU SVWLU KH[
ILaVLRLYZ LU RSHU[LU NLLU OPUKLY VUKLY]VUKLU 6W KL
UHHTZILRLUKOLPK ]HU KL UPL\^L M\UJ[PL ]HU ]LYNHKLY LU
JVUNYLZJLU[Y\T ^LYK L_[YH PUNLaL[
1HYLU U\S
(HU OL[ ILNPU ]HU KLaL LL\^ ^LYK UVN LLU SHH[Z[L OVIILS
NLUVTLU! KL WLYZVULSL VYNHUPZH[PL ^LYK ]LYKLY VTNL]VYTK
(OV` VWLYLLYKL PUTPKKLSZ HS Y\PT QHHY HSZ LLU 5= THHY
RLUKL PU[LYU UVN HS[PQK KL Z[Y\J[\\Y ]HU LLU HTI[LSPQRL VYNHUP
ZH[PL TLKL PUNLNL]LU KVVY KL THH[ZJOHWWLSPQRL YVS KPL (OV`
VVR ^HZ [VLILKLLSK 4HHY TL[ PUTPKKLSZ T [LU[VVU
Z[LSSPUNZY\PT[L LU KL UPL\^L M\UJ[PL ]HU JVUNYLZ LU ]LYNHKLY
JLU[Y\T ^LYKLU HUKLYL JVTWL[LU[PLZ ]HU OL[ WLYZVULLS ]LY
^HJO[ VT (OV` Z[HHUKL [L R\UULU OV\KLU PU LLU JVTTLYJPL
SL THYR[ ,U aV ]PLSLU OPLY VVR ZWHHUKLYZ THHY TL[ Z\JJLZ! LY
PZ LLU LMMPJPLUJ`ZSHN NLTHHR[ >LYR[L (OV` ]VVYOLLU WYVK\J[
NLYPJO[ U\ PZ OL[ TLLY THYR[NLYPJO[ LU OHHS[ KL VYNHUPZH[PL
aLSM L]LULTLU[LU UHHY 9V[[LYKHT
2YVUPLR TLP =VVY OL[ WYVNYHTTLYLU ]HU WVWJVUJLY[LU ^VYK[ PUTPKKLSZ
TL[ ]LYZJOPSSLUKL WHY[PQLU NL^LYR[ LU OLLM[ KL VYNHUPZH[PL OL[
OLM[ PU LPNLU OHUKLU NLUVTLU (OV` PZ ]VS^HZZLU NL^VYKLU!
VU[Z[HHU ]HU\P[ LLU [YHKP[PL ]HU IYVVK LU ZWLSLU PU KL :[
1VYPZKVLSL UHHY KL JVUJLY[ LU [LU[VVUZ[LSSPUNZY\PT[L ]HU +L
+VLSL ]PH 5LUPQ[V 9V[[LYKHT (OV` , LU LLU :WVY[
JVTWSL_ ^HHY LSRL 9V[[LYKHTTLY LLU KLLS ]HU aPQU
QL\NKSHUK OLLM[ SPNNLU UHHY LLU NLIV\^ TL[ LLU ]VSSLKPN
aLSMZ[HUKPNL L_WSVP[H[PLTHH[ZJOHWWPQ
-YHUR ]HU KL 2YLLRL
:[\KLU[ NLZJOPLKLUPZ ,YHZT\Z <UP]LYZP[LP[ ‹
)<33,;05 .,4,,5;, (9*/0,- 96;;,9+(4 ,5 4<:,<4 96;;,9+(4
=HU 5LUPQ[VOHS UHHY (OV`OHS
+L NLZJOPLKLUPZ ]HU (OV`» ILNPU[ IPQ KL 5LUPQ[V
5LKLYSHUKZJOL 5PQ]LYOLPKZ;LU[VVUZ[LSSPUN KPL PU VW
LLU [LYYLPU HJO[LY :[H[PVU +LSM[ZL 7VVY[ )SPQKVYW ^LYK NLOV\
KLU 6W OL[ [LU[VVUZ[LSSPUNZ[LYYLPU Z[VUKLU ]PLY OHSSLU UHHY
VU[^LYW ]HU *) ]HU KLY ;HR /VL^LS aL ILKVLSK ^HYLU ]VVY
[PQKLSPQR NLIY\PR ^LYKLU aL UH HMSVVW ]HU KL [LU[VVUZ[LSSPUN
HHU KL NLTLLU[L V]LYNLKYHNLU +L 4L[HHSOHS ^LYK PU ]LYWSHH[Z[ UHHY OL[ 4HYJVUPWSLPU ^HHY OPQ VUKLYKLLS ^LYK ]HU
KL -VYKH\[VMHIYPLR 0U ILNVU KL HMIYHHR ]HU 5LUPQ[VOHS
) TL[ OL[ VVN VW KL ]LYIYLKPUN ]HU KL [\UULS HHU KL
)L\RLSZKPQR 2LUULSPQR ^LYK KL OHS KHHYUH LSKLYZ VW OL[ [LY
YLPU ^LLY VWNLIV\^K ^HU[ UVN [V[ LPUK QHYLU ]LLY[PN ISLLM
OL[ NLIV\^ OL[ TPKKLSW\U[ ]HU L_J\YZPLZ IL\YaLU ZWVY[NL
IL\Y[LUPZZLU LU HUKLYL HJ[P]P[LP[LU 6W OL[ [LYYLPU R^HT VVR
UVN LLU ZPU[LSIHHU ^HHY UH KL VVYSVN H[SL[PLR^LKZ[YPQKLU ^LY
KLU NLOV\KLU
0U OHK KL 9V[[LYKHTZL ILKYPQ]PNOLPK aPJO OLYZ[LSK ]HU
KL ]LY^VLZ[PUNLU [PQKLUZ KL VVYSVN 6T KH[ ^HWLUMLP[ [L ]PL
YLU LU HHU KL ^LYLSK [L [VULU aV\ ]HU Q\UP [V[ H\N\Z[\Z
LLU NYV[L THUPMLZ[H[PL ^VYKLU NLOV\KLU VUKLY KL UHHT
(OV`» (OV`» ^HZ ]HUV\KZ VW HSSL aLLwU LU VJLHULU KL
YVLW ]HU KL \P[RPQR (OV`» ^LYK KL 9V[[LYKHTZL YVLW VT HHU
KHJO[ ]VVY OL[ VWTLYRLSPQR ZULSSL OLYZ[LS ]HU KL OH]LU (SZ
SVJH[PL ]VVY (OV`» ^LYKLU +PQRaPN[ LU OL[ 7HYR NLRVaLU VT
aV OL[ JVU[HJ[ [\ZZLU OH]LU LU Z[HK [L ILUHKY\RRLU +L
VWKYHJO[ ]VVY OL[ VU[^LYWLU ]HU OL[ L]LULTLU[LUJVTWSL_
NPUN UHHY OL[ HYJOP[LJ[LUI\YLH\ =HU KLU )YVLR )HRLTH
+L LLYZ[L WSHUULU ]HU OL[ HYJOP[LJ[LUI\YLH\ ]VUKLU LJO[LY
NLLU NLUHKL ,PUK ILZSVV[ KL NLTLLU[L KL SHH[Z[L
5LUPQ[VOHS /HS ) UHHY OL[ [LYYLPU ]HU +PQRaPN[ V]LY [L WSHH[
ZLU +L OHS TVLZ[ [VJO ]LYK^PQULU PU ]LYIHUK TL[ KL ZWVVY
^LNWSHUULU IPQ OL[ *LU[YHHS :[H[PVU =HU KLU )YVLR LU
)HRLTH ^LYKLU U\ ]VVY KL VWNH]L NLZ[LSK VT KL LUVYTL
THZZH ]HU Tõ _ T PU KL Y\PT[L PU [L WHZZLU AL
KLKLU KH[ KVVY OL[ NLIV\^ aV]LY TVNLSPQR PU OL[ NYVLU [L
ZJO\P]LU LU OL[ LLU TLLY WSHZ[PZJOL ]VYT [L NL]LU KVVY KL
HHUIV\^ ]HU OL[ 7H]PSQVLU 9V[[LYKHT LU LLU TL[LY SHUNL
]VVYIV\^ +L PUNHUN R^HT [L SPNNLU IPQ OL[ WH]PSQVLU HHU KL
4H[OLULZZLYSHHU +L OHS LPUKPNKL PU LLU NYVV[ [LYYHZ TL[
LYIV]LU LLU YLZ[H\YHU[ +L 5LUPQ[VOHS ^HZ NLIHZLLYK VW LLU
Z[YHTPLU ]HU _ TL[LY LU KP[ ^LYK ]VVY[NLaL[ PU OL[
7H]PSQVLU LU VW OL[ [LYYHZ +L OHS aLSM RYLLN HHU KL I\P[LURHU[
LLU UPL\^L ^HUKJVUZ[Y\J[PL TL[ HM^PZZLSLUK KVVYaPJO[PN LU
VUKVVYaPJO[PN NSHZ NLZJOLPKLU KVVY OVYPaVU[HSL SVVKZ[YPWWLU
0U OL[ PU[LYPL\Y ^HZ OL[ MLSNLRSL\YKL ILLSKOV\^^LYR ]HU 2HYLS
(WWLS ºLLU L_WSVZPL ]HU VLYRYHJO[LU» LLU NL^LSKPNL [YLRRLY
=LYKLY ^HZ KL OHS PUNLYPJO[ TL[ PUaLUKPUNLU ]HU ]LYZJOPSSLU
KL ILKYPQMZ[HRRLU *LU[YHHS Z[VUK KL PUaLUKPUN ]HU YLKLYZ LU
JHYNHKVVYZ! PU LLU ^H[LYIHR ]HU _ TL[LY ^HYLU HSSL
ZJOLWLU NLWSHH[Z[ KPL VW KH[ TVTLU[ 9V[[LYKHT HSZ [O\PZ
OH]LU RLUKLU +L 5LUPQ[VOHS ^LYK UHHY HHUSLPKPUN ]HU KL
THUPMLZ[H[PL VTNLKVVW[ PU (OV`OHS
;VLU (OV`» ]VVYIPQ ^HZ ^LYK KL OHS PUNLaL[ ]VVY HSSLYSLP
JVUJLY[LU Q\IPSLH L_WVZP[PLZ LU ]HRIL\YaLU aVHSZ -LTPUH
4HHY VVR ]VVY KLTVUZ[YH[PLZ ^HHYVUKLY KL WYV[LZ[KLTVUZ[YH
[PL [LNLU OL[ 9\ZZPZJOL VW[YLKLU IPQ KL /VUNHHYZL 6WZ[HUK PU
,U aL ^LYK VWUPL\^ NLIY\PR[ IPQ KL THUPMLZ[H[PLZ ,
(ILEP^SEPWHI^IEERHI;IWX^IIHMNOWXSRH
4PEXXIKVSRHXIRXSSRWXIPPMRKWXIVVIMR2IRMNXS
2YVUPLR TLP KL -SVYPHKL KPL ILPKL VW KLaLSMKL SVJH[PL WSHH[Z]VUKLU HSZ
(OV`» LU *» )PQ , ^LYK KL (OV`OHS \P[NLIYLPK TL[
KL ,ULYNPLOHS KPL SH[LY HSZ ZWVY[OHS KPLUZ[ aV\ KVLU 0U ^LYK LY KL LLYZ[L ^PLSLYaLZKHHNZL ZPUKZ NLOV\KLU
0UTPKKLSZ ^HZ KL (OV`OHS PU ]LYWSHH[Z[ UHHY OL[ PU
NLZSV[LU /LSPWVY[[LYYLPU VTKH[ KL 4LKPZJOL -HJ\S[LP[ VW
+PQRaPN[ PU HHUIV\^ ^HZ )PQ *» ^HZ LY PU KL (OV`OHS LLU
RLYTPZ VUKLYNLIYHJO[ ,LU KLLS ^HZ [VLU HS NLZSVVW[ LU KLLK
KPLUZ[ HSZ V]LYRHWWPUN ]HU OL[ +VSMPYVKHT LLU KYPQ]LUK KVSMP
UHYP\T HHU KL 3L\]LOH]LU +L (OV`OHS ^LYK ]LYKLY VU[THU
[LSK AL OHK VW ]LYZJOPSSLUKL SVJH[PLZ NLZ[HHU LU [LSRLUZ HSZ
Z[LKLSPQRL ]VVYaPLUPUN NLKPLUK +HHYVT ^LYK ILZSV[LU [V[ LLU
WLYTHULU[L LU KLMPUP[PL]L ]LZ[PNPUN ]HU KLaL ]VVYaPLUPUN VW
A\PK PU KL ]VYT ]HU OL[ :WVY[ LU ;LU[VVUZ[LSSPUNZJVTWSL_
(OV`» KH[ PU ^LYK NLVWLUK
/LYPUULYPUNLU HHU (OV`
(SZ QL ]LY ]HU 9V[[LYKHT VWNYVLP[ LU HSZ [PLULY [LSRLUZ ^LLY OVVY[ ^LSRL ^LYLSKZ[LY LY
U\ ^LLY VW[YLLK[ PU (OV` KHU RYPQN[ KPL WSLR LLU ^LSOHHZ[ THNPZJOL HHU[YLRRPUNZRYHJO[
5VN OLSLTHHS ISL\ LU [V[HHS UPL[ OL[ [`WL VT HS KYPL KHNLU ]VVY KL ]VVY]LYRVVWKH[\T
VW KL Z[VLW ]VVY KL === OL[ [VLUTHSPNL ]LYRVVWW\U[ ]VVY RHHY[LU [L NHHU SPNNLU VT
LLU [PJRL[ [L R\UULU ILTHJO[PNLU ISLLR LY NLS\RRPN LLU LUPNZaPUZ ZSPURZL ^LN [VLNHURL
SPQR VT [VJO HHU KPL MLSILNLLYKL WSHH[ZIL^PQaLU [L RVTLU" KL TVLKLY ]HU LLU ]YPLUKPU
UL[QL ^LYR[L IPQ LLU === PU LLU PLUPLTPUP WSHH[ZQL ^HHYHHU ]LYOV\KPUNZNL^PQZ ]LLS
RHHY[LU ^LYKLU [VLNL^LaLU ,U aV RVUKLU ^L [VJO UHHY VUaL PKVSLU 4PQU MH]VYPL[L
JVUJLY[LU ^HYLU KH[ ]HU 1VL 1HJRZVU LU :[PUN )YPUN VU [OL 5PNO[ /L[ ^HZ LLU H]VU
[\\Y! LLU WHHY \\Y TL[ KL [YLPU \P[Z[HWWLU VW *LU[YHHS TL[ KL TL[YV JVVS UHHY
A\PKWSLPU LU KHHY KVLTKL KL T\aPLR[LTWLS VW >L ^HYLU LY HS[PQK TLLY KHU Y\PT VW
[PQK KL JVUJLY[LU ILNVUULU WHZ \YLU SH[LY K\Z QL ^HZ LPNLUSPQR HS TVL [LNLU KL [PQK KH[
OL[ UVN TVLZ[ ILNPUULU 4HHY HSZ OL[ KHU LJO[ aV ]LY ^HZ NPUN aVHSZ KH[ OLL[ OL[ KHR
LYHM /L[ KHR ]HU (OV` PZ LY aV VU[aL[[LUK ]HHR HMNLNHHU KH[ KL PUKY\R^LRRLUKL VWLYH
[PL ]HU KL aVTLY ]HU NLLU IPQaVUKLYOLPK TLLY SLLR (O OL[ KHR ]HU (OV` LYHM&
+H[ NHH[ LY [VJO VUNL]LLY LSRL H]VUK HM&
4LSHUPL 7VZ[ ]HU 6WOLT ‹
)IRZERHIWTIXXIVIRHI
STXVIHIRWZER8MRE8YVRIV
2YVUPLR TLP >/(;: 05 ( 5(4,&
0U R^HTLU TLKL^LYRLYZ ]HU ]PLY T\ZLH IPQ LSRHHY VT
[L WYH[LU V]LY OL[ NLOL\NLU ]HU LLU Z[HK 0U OL[ )PQSVRL
T\ZL\T PU .LU[ ^PZZLSKLU OL[ UVN VW [L aL[[LU 4\ZL\T HHU
KL :[YVVT \P[ (U[^LYWLU OL[ (TZ[LYKHTZ /PZ[VYPZJO
4\ZL\T LU OL[ /PZ[VYPZJO 4\ZL\T 9V[[LYKHT [^LL KHNLU
SHUN PKLLwU \P[ V]LY OVL OL[ NLOL\NLU ]HU LLU Z[HK OL[ ILZ[
[V[ aPQU YLJO[ RHU RVTLU
0U (U[^LYWLU LU .LU[ ILZ[HHU KHU HS ]LYNL]VYKLYKL WSHUULU
]VVY OL[ VWaL[[LU ]HU LLU UPL\^ Z[HKZT\ZL\T 0U .LU[ aHS
LLU ILZ[HHUK RSVVZ[LY ^VYKLU VTNLIV\^K 0U (U[^LYWLU
^VYKLU ]PLY ]LYZJOPSSLUKL T\ZLH NL{U[LNYLLYK PU LLU ZWSPU[LY
UPL\^ NLIV\^ KH[ HSZ LLU IHRLU VW KL NYLUZ [\ZZLU Z[HK LU
OH]LU ]LYYPQZ[ (TZ[LYKHT LU 9V[[LYKHT ULTLU LU[OV\ZPHZ[
RLUUPZ ]HU KLaL VU[^PRRLSPUNLU LU NL]LU HHU KH[ LY IPQ OLU
VVR ]HU HSSLZ VWIVYYLS[ 9V[[LYKHT LU (TZ[LYKHT ]LY^PQaLU
UHHY OL[ LPNLU[PQKZ ]LYaHTLSLU LU KL UPL\^L WYLZLU[H[PLZ
^HHYPU KL YLJLU[L NLZJOPLKLUPZ LLU NYV[L YVS RYPQN[ [VLILKLLSK
0U OL[ ]LYZSHN ]HU KLaL ]PLYZ[LKLU^VYRZOVW RVT[ LLU HHU[HS
JVUJS\ZPLZ UHHY ]VYLU ^HHY KL KLLSULTLYZ ]HU KL T\ZLH aPJO
NVLK PU R\UULU ]PUKLU )LSHUNYPQRL ]YHHN PZ OVL ^L OL[
OLKLUKHHNZ W\ISPLR R\UULU IVLPLU TL[ OL[ ]LYOHHS ]HU KL
Z[HK =HZ[NLZ[LSK ^VYK[ KH[ OL[ W\ISPLR KH[ NLIVYLU PZ UH
HUKLYZ TL[ NLZJOPLKLUPZ VTNHH[ KHU KL V\KLYL NLULYH
[PL +HHYUHHZ[ aPQU PU^VULYZ TL[ LLU UPL[ ^LZ[LYZL HJO[LY
NYVUK UH\^LSPQRZ ]LY[YV\^K TL[ OL[ MLUVTLLU T\ZL\T
+L KLLSULTLYZ R\UULU aPJO HSSLU ]PUKLU PU KL TPZZPL ]HU OL[
4\ZL\T VM 3VUKVU! [V PUZWPYL H WHZZPVU MVY [OL JP[` OL[NLLU
PU OL[ 5LKLYSHUKZ UL[ PL[Z HUKLYZ RSPUR[ KHU PU OL[ LUNLSZ
=VSNLUZ KL KLLSULTLYZ IL[LRLU[ KP[ KH[ LLU Z[HKZT\ZL\T ]LY
SLKLU LU HJ[\HSP[LP[ ]HU KL Z[HK OLJO[ TL[ LSRHHY TVL[ ]LYIPU
KLU /L[ ZSV[HRRVVYK KH[ KL NHZ[OLLY ]HU KL IPQLLURVTZ[ SHH[
RSPURLU S\PK[! ]VVY OL[ Z[HKZT\ZL\T PZ KL Z[LKLSPUN KL
ILSHUNYPQRZ[L KVLSNYVLW LU [L]LUZ LLU ILSHUNYPQRL IYVU +PL
JVUJS\ZPL VTaL[[LU PU UPL\^ ILSLPK ^VYK[ ]VVY KL IL[YVRRLU
T\ZLH NYV[L VWKYHJO[ ]VVY KL UPL\^L LL\^ +L T\ZLH TVL
[LU LLU UPL\^L UHHT RYPQNLU ^HHYPU OL[ ILNYPW Z[HKZT\ZL\T
JLU[YHHS Z[HH[ /L[ UPL\^L T\ZL\T TVL[ LLU JLU[Y\T ^VYKLU
^HHY HSSLZ IPQ LSRHHY RVT[ ^H[ KL HJ[\LSL Z[HK HSZ YLZ\S[HH[
]HU OHHY ZWLJPMPLR ]LYSLKLU HHUNHH[
VUKLY KL UHHT 4(: LLU HMRVY[PUN ]VVY 4\ZL\T HHU KL
:[YVVT [L ^L[LU KL :JOLSKL
,U (TZ[LYKHT LU 9V[[LYKHT& APQ aPQU YLSH[PLM TPUKLY [PQK R^PQ[
NL^LLZ[ HHU LLU UPL\^ VM [L YLUV]LYLU NLIV\^ LU OLIILU
NL{U]LZ[LLYK PU OL[ VWaL[[LU LU \P[WYVILYLU ]HU LLU UPL\^L
YLSH[PL TL[ KL Z[HK LU aPQU Z[LKLSPUNLU +H[ UPL\^L ILSLPK
YLZ\S[LLY[ WLY QHU\HYP PU [^LL UPL\^L UHTLU
(TZ[LYKHT 4\ZL\T LU 4\ZL\T 9V[[LYKHT
>H[ KL ]PLY Z[HKZT\ZLH NLTLLU OLIILU PZ LLU UHHY I\P[LU
NLYPJO[ ILSLPK 0U [VLULTLUKL TH[L OV\KLU aPQ O\U HJ[P]P[LP
[LU LU WYLZLU[H[PLZ I\P[LU KL ]LY[YV\^KL T\YLU ]HU OL[
NLIV\^ 5PL[ aVaLLY VT OL[ T\ZL\T UHHY KL TLUZLU [L IYLU
NLU aVHSZ KH[ PU KL QHYLU  LU  ]HU KL ]VYPNL LL\^
^LYK NLWYVILLYK THHY VTKH[ ILaPN aPQU TL[ KL YLJLU[L
NLZJOPLKLUPZ ]HU KL Z[HK UPL[ HUKLYZ RHU KHU TL[ KL TLUZLU
KPL KLaL NLZJOPLKLUPZ THRLU +L T\ZLH aVLRLU KHHY]VVY LLU
VYNHUPZH[PL]VYT KPL V]LYLLURVT[ TL[ KL VU[^PRRLSPUN ]HU KL
Z[HK aLSM UHTLSPQR HSZ LLU UL[^LYR ]HU TLUZLU LU HJ[P]P[LP[LU
aV^LS YLwLS HSZ SHUNZ KPNP[HSL ^LNLU
AVHSZ (TZ[LYKHT ILaPN PZ TL[ T\ZLHSL I\\Y[^PURLSZ .LU[
HSSLYSLP YV\[LZ KVVY KL Z[HK HHUIPLK[ (U[^LYWLU ^VYRZOVWZ LU
WYLZLU[H[PLZ VWaL[ PU KL Z[HK aV VU[^PRRLS[ 4\ZL\T
9V[[LYKHT aPJO [V[ UL[^LYRT\ZL\T LU aHS KL UPL\^L UHHT
Z[LLKZ ]HRLY HSZ TLYRUHHT LU Z[LTWLS ]LYZJOPQULU IPQ HSSLYSLP
NLIL\Y[LUPZZLU PU KL Z[HK
6]LY OL[ ^HHYVT ]HU KLaL VU[^PRRLSPUN PU KL ]PLY Z[LKLU NHM
KL IPQLLURVTZ[ PU .LU[ LLU PU[LYLZZHU[ HU[^VVYK +L
Z[HKZT\ZLH TVL[LU Z`ULYNPL PU KL Z[HK Z[PT\SLYLU HSZ [LNLU
RYHJO[ [LNLU KL [VLULTLUKL MYHNTLU[HYPZLYPUN KPL ^L PU KL
NYV[L Z[LKLU LY]HYLU :`ULYNPL KPL LLU OLSKLY OPZ[VYPZJO ILZLM
HSZ IHZPZ TVL[ OLIILU >HU[ HS PZ OL[ ^VVYK OPZ[VYPZJO \P[ KL
UHTLU ]HU KL ]PLY T\ZLH ]LYK^LULU NLZJOPLKLUPZ PZ ^LS
KLNLSPQR OL[ HURLY ^HHY HSSL HTIP[PLZ HHU ]HZ[ ^VYKLU NLSLNK
1HJX\LZ )€YNLY
OVVMK HMKLSPUN *VTT\UPJH[PL
,U U\ aPQU ^L Y\PT QHHY ]LYKLY /L[ PZ IVLPLUK VT OL[ ]LY
ZSHN ]HU KLaL ]PLYZ[LKLUIPQLLURVTZ[ TL[ KL PUaPJO[LU ]HU U\
UVN LLUZ [L SLaLU =LLS ]HU KL HTIP[PLZ aPQU VU]LYHUKLYK LU LY
^VYK[ OHYK NL^LYR[ HHU KL YLHSPZH[PL KHHY]HU 0U .LU[ PZ OL[
RSVVZ[LY VTNLIV\^K [V[ LLU WYHJO[PN Z[HKZT\ZL\T VUKLY KL
UHHT :;(4 LLU HMRVY[PUN ]HU :[HKZ4\ZL\T 0U (U[^LYWLU
^VYK[ VW TLP LPUKLSPQR OL[ UPL\^L NLIV\^ NLVWLUK
1SHIPZERLIXFIIPHZEREHQMVEEP;MXXI'SVRIPMW^HI;MXLMR^MNRKVEJQSRYQIRXMRHI0EYVIRWOIVO
2YVUPLR TLP 9V[[LYKHT *SHZZPJZ -PSTJVUJLY[ =LY^VLZ[L :[HK
=LLS SLKLU ]HU 9V[LYVKHT\T ^HYLU HHU^LaPN IPQ KL Z\JJLZ
]VSSL WYLTPuYL ]HU KL MPST! +, :;(+ +0, 5660; 9<:; [PQ
KLUZ OL[ MPSTMLZ[P]HS PU KL 9V[[LYKHTZL :JOV\^I\YN 6W TLP VYNHUPZLLY[ 9V[[LYKHT *SHZZPJZ VWUPL\^ LLU IPQaVUKLYL
]VVYZ[LSSPUN 0U KL 3H\YLUZRLYR RHU PLKLYLLU LLU ZWLJPHHS MPST
JVUJLY[ IPQ^VULU ^HHYIPQ UPL[ LLYKLY NLIY\PR[L VWUHTLZ aPQU
[L aPLU KPL [PQKLUZ KL VVYSVN KVVY 7VS`NVVU LU 7YVMPS[P aPQU
NLTHHR[ ,Y aPQU VUKLY HUKLYL ILLSKLU [L aPLU ]HU OL[ W\PUY\P
TLU KL IV\^ ]HU UVVK]VVYaPLUPUNLU LU KL LLYZ[L ^LKLYVW
IV\^WYVQLJ[LU +L MPST ^VYK[ SP]L ILNLSLPK KVVY .LLY[
)PLYSPUN VW OL[ VYNLS PU KL 3H\YLUZRLYR ^HHYKVVY LLU \UPLR
MPSTJVUJLY[ VU[Z[HH[ +L PUSLPKPUN ^VYK[ ]LYaVYNK KVVY )LY[
/VNLURHTW IPQaVUKLY OVVNSLYHHY HHU KL =YPQL <UP]LYZP[LP[ LU
]LYIVUKLU HSZ TLKPHOPZ[VYPJ\Z HHU OL[ 5LKLYSHUKZ 0UZ[P[\\[
]VVY )LLSK LU .LS\PK
+H[\T! TLP HHU]HUN ! \\Y PUSVVW ]HUHM !
\\Y +L [VLNHUN PZ ]YPQ
/L[ -PSTJVUJLY[ RVT[ ]VVY[ \P[ LLU ZHTLU^LYRPUN [\ZZLU
:[PJO[PUN 4LP /LYKLURPUN 3H\YLUZRLYR :[PJO[PUN
:[HKZT\aPLR 5LKLYSHUKZ 0UZ[P[\\[ ]VVY )LLSK LU .LS\PK LU
9V[[LYKHT *SHZZPJZ
9V[[LYKHT *SHZZPJZ PZ LLU PUP[PH[PLM ]HU OL[ .LTLLU[LHYJOPLM
9V[[LYKHT
>PS[ \ VW KL OVVN[L ISPQ]LU ]HU KL ]VVYZ[LSSPUNLU ]HU
9V[[LYKHT *SHZZPJZ TLSK[ \ KHU HHU ]VVY KL THPSPUNSPQZ[ KVVY
LLU THPS [L Z[\YLU UHHY PUMV'NHYYV[[LYKHTUS V]] 9V[[LYKHT
*SHZZPJZ THPSPUNSPQZ[
7VL[Y` 0U[LYUH[PVUHS -LZ[P]HS WYLZLU[LLY[ QHHYSPQRZ LLU ]HU KL
NYVV[Z[L LU TLLZ[ [VVUHHUNL]LUKL WVwaPLL]LULTLU[LU
^LYLSK^PQK +L ILZ[L KPJO[LYZ ]HU HSSL JVU[PULU[LU RVTLU ]HU
[V[ Q\UP UHHY KL 9V[[LYKHTZL :JOV\^I\YN VT O\U
WVwaPL [L KLSLU TL[ LLU LU[OV\ZPHZ[ W\ISPLR 7\YL WVwaPL PU
]LSL ]VYTLU! HSZ ]VVYKYHJO[ MPST [OLH[LY KLIH[ PU[LY]PL^
T\aPLR LU L_WVZP[PL ^^^WVL[Y`US
:IV[SIWXIWXEH
/LYPUULYPUNLU HHU (OV`
4L[ UL[ ttU JVUJLY[ TLLY KHU (UKYt /HaLZ Z[HH[ +PHUH 9VZZ VW KL KL WSHH[Z ]HU ºTVZ[
MYLX\LU[ WLYMVYTLYZ» PU (OV` (SK\Z OL[ IVLR (OV` PU JVUJLY[ » ¶ º ]HU 3V\PZ K\
4V\SPU LU 9VI =LYOVYZ[
4LKPV QHYLU » KL OVVN[PQ KHNLU ]HU KL KPZJV ^HZ KL (TLYPRHHUZL º+YLHTNPYS» RPUK HHU
O\PZ PU (OV` (SZ V\KL 4V[V^UMHU LU MLY]LU[ KPZJVNHUNLY ^PSKL PR LY LLU RLLY IPQ aPQU
+L JVUJLY[LU ]VUKLU WSHH[Z ºPU [OL YV\UK»! LLU NYVV[ YVUK WVKP\T PU OL[ TPKKLU ]HU KL
]SHRRL ]SVLY 6UKLY KH[ WVKP\T ^HZ LLU Y\PT[L VT YHaLUKZULS ]HU V\[MP[ [L ^PZZLSLU
UHKH[ LY LLU YVUKL º[VYUHKV» ]HU a^HY[L Z[VM VTSHHN ^HZ NLRVTLU KPL KL Z[LY HHU OL[ VVN
VU[[YVR /LLS PUNLUPL\Z 6UKLYPU KH[ YVUKL WVKP\T aH[ LLU ]YV\^ VWNL]V\^LU APQ OPLSW
TL[ OL[ KPJO[YP[ZLU ]HU KL Z[YHRRL NSP[[LYWHRQLZ +LaL NLKPLUZ[PNL NLLZ[ aL[[L VVR TL[ LUPNL
YLNLSTHH[ ºLLU ]LYZ RVWQL [OLL» ULLY VW KL YHUK ]HU OL[ WVKP\T 4L[ OVUPUN 6M TL[
Y\T& 6T KL RLLS ]HU KL KP]H [L ZTLYLU 5H ^LLY LLU ZL[QL U\TTLYZ NPUN +PHUH KVVY KL
RUPLLU VT LLU ZSVRQL [L ULTLU =HU LLU NSVLPLUKOLL[ RVWQL º>V^ [OH[»Z OV[» 4HHY KL
ZOV^ T\Z[ NV VU" VVR TL[ LLU ]LYIYHUKL [VUN 5H ^H[ ^HWWLYLU TL[ KL OHUK WHR[L º3H
9VZZ» KL KYHHK WYVMLZZPVULLS ^LLY VW 0R KLUR ^LS KH[ LY KPL H]VUK PU (OV` PLTHUK OHHY
VU[ZSHN OLLM[ NLRYLNLU
2LLZ =YPQKHN ‹
2YVUPLR TLP =669 +90, 70,2 5((9 1,<.+3(5+!
-9<0; ,,5 29,5;,5)63 ,5 ,,5 .3(: 4,32
:PUKZ LURLSL QHYLU ILZ[HHU 1L\NKSHUK LU OL[ SH[LYL ,SKVYHKV
1L\NKSHUK UPL[ TLLY +VVY MPUHUJPwSL WYVISLTLU NLK^VUNLU
^LYK OL[ PU VTNLaL[ PU 1L\NK]HRHU[PLSHUK KH[ VVR KP[
QHHY ]HU [V[ LU TL[ H\N\Z[\Z aHS WSHH[Z]PUKLU PU (OV` )PQ
OL[ QHYPN ILZ[HHU ]HU (OV`» ]LYZJOLLU LLU Q\IPSL\T\P[NH]L
^HHYPU LLU NLZWYLR Z[VUK HMNLKY\R[ TL[ KL VYNHUPZH[VY ]HU OL[
LLYZ[L \\Y KL PUTPKKLSZ V]LYSLKLU 1HJX\LZ 2VLKVVK >L
ULTLU KH[ PU[LY]PL^ PU[LNYHHS V]LY
º1L\NKSHUK ZPUKZ RVY[ ,SKVYHKV 1L\NKSHUK PZ ]VVY TPQ WLYZVVU
SPQR HS[PQK TLLY NL^LLZ[ KHU aVTHHY LLU RHY^LP» aLN[ 1HJX\LZ
2VLKVVK! ºOL[ PZ LLU ^LaLUSPQR VUKLYKLLS ]HU TPQU SL]LU
NL^VYKLU =HUKHHY KH[ PR PU OL[ ]LYSLKLU VVR MVYZL ]LYZJOPSSLU
]HU TLUPUN OHK TL[ KL KPLUZ[ :WVY[ LU 9LJYLH[PL" ^HHY aL ^LS
LLUZ [L ]LLS HHU 1L\NKSHUK ^PSKLU ]LYHUKLYLU >HU[ PR ]VUK
LU ]PUK UVN Z[LLKZ KH[ 1L\NKSHUK ]VVY OL[ RPUK LLU ]LY[YV\^
KL ]LPSPNL LU ]VVYHS OLYRLUIHYL VTNL]PUN TVL[ aPQU ^HHYPU
QHHYSPQRZ OVVN\P[ LLU WHHY ]HU KL Y\PT ]LLY[PN VUKLYKLSLU
TVNLU ]LYHUKLYLU»
1HJX\LZ 2VLKVVK PU 9V[[LYKHT ]VVYHS ILRLUK HSZ VU[^LYWLY
VYNHUPZH[VY LU IV\^LY ]HU [LU[VVUZ[LSSPUNLU OLLM[ HS TLLY
KHU ]PQMLU[^PU[PN QHHY [L THRLU TL[ 1L\NKSHUK ,PNLUSPQR ]HUHM
OL[ TVTLU[ KH[ OL[ L]LULTLU[ ]HU KL YLJO[LY
4HHZVL]LY UHHY 9V[[LYKHTA\PK OL[ UPL\^L (OV` JVTWSL_ ]LYO\PZKL APQU PUIYLUN PZ LLU ILSHUNYPQRL NL^LLZ[ IPQ KL VU[
^PRRLSPUNLU KPL OLIILU NLSLPK [V[ OL[ NYVV[ZJOLLWZL L]LUL
TLU[ ]HU OLKLU KH[ PU KL THHUK Q\SP HSSL Y\PT[LU ]HU (OV`
IPUULU LU I\P[LU PU ILZSHN ULLT[
1HYLU ]PQM[PN
/L[ PKLL ]VVY 1L\NKSHUK KH[LLY[ \P[ KL [^LLKL OLSM[ ]HU KL
UVN ^H[ HYTVLNYH\^L QHYLU ]PQM[PN )PQ KL NLTLLU[LSPQRL 9HHK
]VVY KL 3PJOHTLSPQRL 6W]VLKPUN ]VUK TLU OL[ [VLU UVVKaH
RLSPQR VT ]VVY RHUZHYTL 9V[[LYKHTZL RPUKLYLU ¶ LU RHUZHYT
SLRLU aL [VLU IPQUH HSSLTHHS PU KL ^LKLYVWIV\^Z[HK PU Q\SP
VM H\N\Z[\Z PL[Z [L VYNHUPZLYLU aVKH[ KL ZJOVVSQL\NK PU KL
aVTLY]HRHU[PL LLU [PQKQL ]HU KL Z[YHH[ ^HZ +PL NLKHJO[L SLPK
KL PU [V[ 1L\NKSHUK LLU RPUKLY]HRHU[PLMLLZ[ KH[ KHNLU K\\YKL 2PUKLYLU ]HU aLZ [V[ LU TL[ [^HHSM QHHY ^LYKLU
VUKLY SLPKPUN ]HU QVUNL VUKLY^PQaLYZ LU ]VVYHS R^LRLSPUNLU
TL[ HSSLYSLP ZWLS]VYTLU ILaPNNLOV\KLU +L [VLNHUNZWYPQZ ^HZ
KYPL N\SKLU LU LLU JVUZ\TW[PLRHHY[ ]VVY LLU RYLU[LUIVS MY\P[
LU LLU NSHZ TLSR RVZ[[L LLU RUHHR THHY ]VVY KL LJO[L TPU
]LYTVNLUKLU ^HZ aLSMZ HHU KPL WYPQaLU UVN ^LS PL[Z [L KVLU
º>L ^PSKLU LY HSZ QVUNL 9V[[LYKHTZL VUKLYULTPUN NYHHN HHU
TLL^LYRLU» OLYPUULY[ 2VLKVVK aPJO ºKHHYVT Z[LSKLU ^L
HSSLYSLP TH[LYPHSLU NYH[PZ ILZJOPRIHHY LU KLJSHYLLYKLU ^L
HSSLLU THHY KL SVVURVZ[LU» APQU LPNLU PUaL[ YLRLUKL 1HJX\LZ
2VLKVVK LJO[LY UPL[ [LY^PQS [VJO ]LLS ]HU aPQU [PQK LULYNPL LU
KLUR^LYR HHU 1L\NKSHUK ^LYK ILZ[LLK AV VU[^PLYW 2VLKVVK
KL ]VSSLKPNL SH`V\[ LU ^HZ OPQ Z[LLKZ ILaPN TL[ KL VU[^PRRL
SPUN ]HU KL ZWLS]VYTLU KH[ SHH[Z[L [V[ VW KL KHN ]HU ]HU
KHHN 6W 1L\NKSHUK ^HYLU KL RPUKLYLU PLKLY QHHY aLRLY ]HU
LLU HHU[HS [YHKP[PVULSL HJ[P]P[LP[LU ^HHYHHU ]LLS WSLaPLY [L
ILSL]LU ]PLS 5HHZ[ KP]LYZL ZWVY[LU aV^LS IPUULU HSZ I\P[LU
^HYLU KH[ VUKLY TLLY [LRLULU ZJOPSKLYLU RSLPLU JVSSHNLZ
THRLU TVKLSIV\^ LU ISVLTZJOPRRLU 4HHY 1L\NKSHUK OHK
VVR LLU JPYJ\ZZJOVVS LU LLU [OLH[LY[QL ^HHY RPUKLYLU aV^LS
[VLZJOV\^LY HSZ WPZ[L LU WVKP\THY[PLZ[ TVJO[LU aPQU =HUHM
OL[ ILNPU KYVLNLU NLTLLU[LSPQRL KPLUZ[LU HHU OL[ RPUKLY]LY
THHR IPQ! KL WSHU[ZVLULUKPLUZ[ OL[ OH]LUILKYPQM KL
+YPUR^H[LYSLPKPUN LU OLLS WVW\SHPY KL 9,; ^HHY TLU VUKLY
TLLY ºJVUK\J[L\Y[QL» RVU ZWLSLU ,Y ^HZ VW 1L\NKSHUK HS[PQK
LLU HHU[HS ILYVLWLU KH[ º[L ZWLSLU» ^HZ aVHSZ TL[ZLSLU
Z[YHH[THRLU IYVVK IHRRLU 6VR RVUKLU KL RPUKLYLU º^PURLS
[QL ZWLSLU» PU LLU TPUPZ\WLYTHYR[ LU ^HZ LY LLU YLZ[H\YHU[QL
^HHY aL NHZ[ ILKPLUKL RVR VM THUHNLY RVUKLU ZWLSLU +L
SHH[Z[L QHYLU ^LYKLU OPLYHHU ]HRRLU [VLNL]VLNK HSZ VT Z[YH
[LUTHRLU YPVSLYPUNZ^LYRLU IV\^[PTTLYLU LU VVR ^LYKLU
KL RPUKLYLU ILRLUK NLTHHR[ TL[ KL H\[VTH[PZLYPUN ]PH KL
2PUKLY 2VTW\[LY >LYLSK
+\PaLUK ]PLYRHU[L TL[LY OP[LJO ^HHY HSSL NYV[L PTWVY[L\YZ
]HU JVTW\[LYOHYK^HYL LU ZVM[^HYL O\U K\YL ZW\SSLU PU OHU
KLU ]HU KL RPUKLYLU NL]LU ]HU ]PY[\HS YLHSP[`ZWLSLU [V[ WL\
[LYPUMVYTH[PJH
2LYTPZH[[YHJ[PLZ
2VLKVVK! º=HUHM PZ KL IPQKYHNL ]HU KL NLTLLU[LSPQRL
ILKYPQ]LU HHU 1L\NKSHUK HM NHHU ULTLU +L KPLUZ[ ]VVY :WVY[
LU 9LJYLH[PL KPL 1L\NKSHUK PLKLY QHHY VYNHUPZLLYKL aVJO[
KHHYVT JVTWLUZH[PL IPQ RLYTPZH[[YHJ[PLZ aVHSZ LLU JH[^HSR LU
IV[ZH\[VV[QLZ LU aV 4HHY KH[ ^HZ [VJO OL[ LJO[L 1L\NKSHUK
UPL[ TLLY» /L[ ^LYK K\PKLSPQR KH[ KL NLTLLU[L \P[ ILa\PUPNPU
NLU LU ]LYHUKLYK ILSLPK ]HU OL[ ]HRHU[PLRPUKLYMLLZ[ PU (OV`
HM ^PSKL 6W KH[aLSMKL TVTLU[ LJO[LY V]LY^VVN (OV`
9V[[LYKHT 5= LLU UPL\^ QL\NKL]LULTLU[ PU OHHY WHRRL[ VW
4PQU OLYPUULYPUN HHU (OV`
+YPL THHS PZ ZJOLLWZYLJO[
(SZ QVUNL[QL KH[ aV VUNL]LLY VT KL OVLR ^VVUKL ILaVJO[ PR ILNPU QHYLU aLZ[PN KP]LYZL LKP[PLZ ]HU
1L\NKSHUK HHU KL >LZ[aLLKPQR +L LLYZ[L KYPLKPTLUZPVUHSL MPSTZ TL[ aV»U RHY[VUULU IYPSSL[QL RUVWLU
THRLU PU OL[ RHILSNH[ TL[ZLSLU PU LLU NYV[L IHR a^LTTLU +L OLSL KHN ^LYKLU ^L ILaPN NLOV\KLU
,U UPL[ HSSLLU KH[ THHY ^L RYLNLU VVR [LNLU PUSL]LYPUN ]HU LLU IVUUL[QL LLU RYLU[LUIVS LU LLU aHRQL
JOPWZ ^HHY QL aLSM OL[ aV\[ HHU [VL TVLZ[ ]VLNLU \P[ LLU RSLPU ISH\^ aHRQL
;PLU QHHY SH[LY THHR[L PR OL[ ]LYWSHH[Z[L (OV` VW /LSPWVY[ TLL [VLU KHHY PU OVUKLYKLU QVUNLYLU
\P[ OLLS ,\YVWH IPQ LSRHHY R^HTLU HSZ PR TL UPL[ ]LYNPZ PU OL[ RHKLY ]HU KL =YLKLZ^LLR
,U KHU OL[ :WVY[WHSLPZ VW a\PK /VSPKH` VU 0JL OL[ 2LYZ[JPYJ\Z ;PUH ;\YULY )) 2PUN 5PNO[ VM [OL
WYVTZ QHHY 97O6 LU ]VYPN QHHY 5VY[O :LH 1Haa (SZ QHYPNL PZ TPQU SL]LU UH\^ ]LYIVUKLU TL[
OL[ QHYPNL (OV`
:QHHR ]HU KLY =LSKLU ‹
2YVUPLR TLP [L ULTLU KH[ KL ]VVYSVWPNL UHHT ,SKVYHKV OHK NLRYLNLU
AV PZ OL[ PU VUKLY SLPKPUN ]HU 1HJX\LZ 2VLKVVK [V[ LLU
NL{U[LNYLLYK L]LULTLU[ ]HU KL NLTLLU[LSPQRL KPLUZ[ :WVY[ LU
9LJYLH[PL LU (OV` 9V[[LYKHT 5= NLRVTLU KH[ 1L\NKSHUK
,SKVYHKV OLL[[L :PUKZ PZ ,SKVYHKV 1L\NKSHUK KL UHTLU
K\Z PU LLU HUKLYL ]VSNVYKL LLU LPNLU L]LULTLU[ ]HU (OV`
+L [V[HSL RVZ[LU ILKYHNLU JPYJH TPSQVLU N\SKLU KPL KLLSZ
\P[ KL [VLNHUNZNLSKLU LU ZWVUZVYNLSKLU RVTLU THHY ^HHY]HU
KL NLTLLU[L PU ]PLY [VU ]VVY OHHY YLRLUPUN UHT
2SVZZPV
(HU ,SKVYHKV 1L\NKSHUK OLLM[ 1HJX\LZ 2VLKVVK PU ¶ ºTL[
YLZWLJ[ ]VVY OL[ ]LYSLKLU» LLU HHU[HS UPL\^L ZWLSLSLTLU[LU
[VLNL]VLNK +L ILSHUNYPQRZ[L LY]HU PZ 2SVZZPV LLU YL\aLURPUK
]HU ]PQM[PN TL[LY SHUN [^PU[PN IYLLK LU ULNLU OVVN KH[ VW
LLU NYV[L ZWLLS^LPKL VU[ZWHUULU VW LLU NYHZZWYPL[QL SPN[ [L
RH\^LU /L[ NL^LSKPNL SPQM ]HU 2SVZZPV PZ PU MLP[L LLU KVVSOVM
]HU K\PaLUK ]PLYRHU[L TL[LY ^HHYPU RPUKLYLU RLUUPZ THRLU
TL[ KL ]VYT LU M\UJ[PL ]HU O\U aPU[\PNLU 6W O\U a^LYM[VJO[
KVVY 2SVZZPV TVL[LU KL QVUNL NHZ[LU OVYLU aPLU Y\PRLU
WYVL]LU LU ]VLSLU" aL ^HUKLSLU V]LY LLU ]SVLY KPL IL\Y[L
SPUNZ ]HU ZJO\PTY\IILY aHUK RLP[QLZ ZJOVYZ ZJOLSWLU LU
WHYLSNYPU[ PZ LU WHZZLYLU VW O\U H]VU[\\YSPQRL WHK OVVYa\PSLU
ZTHHRMVU[LPULU LU NL\Ya\PSLU
º/L[ VU[^LYW ]HU 2SVZZPV OLLM[ ^LS ]LLS [L THRLU TL[ TPQU
LPNLU SL]LUZOV\KPUN» aLN[ ]YPQTL[ZLSHHY 1HJX\LZ 2VLKVVK º0R
]PUK OL[ LLU LZZLU[PwSL aHHR KH[ KL TLUZ aPJO aV ]YVLN TVNL
SPQR IL^\Z[ ^VYK[ ]HU aPQU ^LaLU LU TVNLSPQROLKLU OVL OPQ PU
LSRHHY aP[ LU ^H[ OPQ RHU KVLU º2LU \ aLS]L» KH[ JYLKV OLI
ILU ^L PU KL ]YPQTL[ZLSHYPQ» 6VR OL[ VUKLYKLLS KH[ 1HJX\LZ
2VLKVVK PU VWUHT PU ,SKVYHKV 1L\NKSHUK OLLM[ YLJO[
Z[YLLRZ [L THRLU TL[ KL KYHUN UHHY RLUUPZ /L[ PZ OL[
º6U[KLRRLYZKVYW» ^HHY HSSLYSLP VIQLJ[LU WYPRRLSLU [V[ ]LYKLYL
2YVUPLR TLP VU[^PRRLSPUN ]HU KL QL\NKPNL aPU[\PNLU aVHSZ IHSHUJLLYZJOPQ
]LU LLU WPYV\L[[LUJHYYV\ZLS YV[LYLUKL ZJOPQ]LU LU PTW\SZ
RVNLSZ 6W ,SKVYHKV 1L\NKSHUK OHK :JV\[PUN 5LKLYSHUK
LLU V]LYSL]PUNZRHTW PUNLYPJO[ TL[ RHILSIHHU RSPTUL[ JH[
JYH^S Q\UNSLIY\N LU HUKLYL ZWHUULUKL KPUNLU
4L[ \P[aVUKLYPUN ]HU KL SHH[Z[L [^LL QHHY [YLR[ 1L\NKSHUK QHHY
SPQRZ [\ZZLU KL LU ILaVLRLY[QLZ +L VVYaHHR
]HU OL[ SHNLYL HHU[HS PU KL aVTLYZ ]HU LU ^HZ OL[
L_[YLLT ^HYTL ^LLY +LaL aVTLYZ ILOVVYKLU PTTLYZ [V[ KL
^HYTZ[L ]HU KLaL LL\^ 4HHY OVL KL aVTLY PU KL [VLRVTZ[
VVR aHS \P[WHRRLU ]VVY 1HJX\LZ 2VLKVVK Z[HH[ OL[ ]HZ[ KH[
,SKVYHKV 1L\NKSHUK IL[LY PU KL SHH[Z[L KYPL ^LRLU ]HU KL NYV[L
]HRHU[PL RHU ^VYKLU NLOV\KLU KHU PU OL[ ILNPU ºSR KLUR KH[
KL KVLSNYVLW \P[ KL QHYLU ]PQM[PN RPUKLYLU \P[ NLaPUULU ^HHY
TLU LJO[ UPL[Z OHK U\ UPL[ TLLY ILZ[HH[ 4HHY ^LS PZ OL[ UVN
Z[LLKZ aV KH[ LY IPQ ]LLS OLKLUKHHNZL 9V[[LYKHTZL NLaPUULU PU
KL SHH[Z[L WLYPVKL ]HU KL aVTLY]HRHU[PL UPL[ ]LLS NLSK TLLY
V]LY PZ +HU PZ OL[ [VJO WYHJO[PN HSZ LY aVPL[Z HSZ ,SKVYHKV
1L\NKSHUK ILZ[HH[ ^HHY KL RPUKLYLU ]VVY YLSH[PLM ^LPUPN NLSK
LLU WHHY SL\RL KHNLU R\UULU ILSL]LU >HU[ SH[LU ^L ^LS
^LaLU! SLRRLY VW Z[YHH[ ZWLSLU aVHSZ QL PU TPQU QL\NK RVU PZ
LY PU 9V[[LYKHT [VJO OHHZ[ UPL[ TLLY IPQ 0R ]PUK KH[ LLU NYV[L
Z[HK KL ZVJPHSL WSPJO[ OLLM[ VT aPQU RPUKLYLU LLU JVTWLUZH[PL
[L NL]LU ]VVY OL[ NLIYLR HHU ]LPSPNL Y\PT[L +HHYVT OLLM[
,SKVYHKV 1L\NKSHUK PU TPQU VW[PLR aLRLY LLU NYV[L [VLRVTZ[
4HHY OL[ PZ K\PKLSPQR KH[ KHU KL NLTLLU[LSPQRL IPQKYHNL HHU KL
RVZ[LU NLOHUKOHHMK TVL[ ISPQ]LU (UKLYZ aHS [ OLSHHZ ZWVLKPN
V]LY aPQU TL[ VUZ TVVPL 9V[[LYKHTZL RPUKLYL]LULTLU[»
4L[ OL[ LPNLU[PQKZL 1L\NK]HRHU[PLSHUK KH[ ]VVY ]PQM L\YV [L
ILaVLRLU PZ OLLM[ 9V[[LYKHT UVN Z[LLKZ LLU TVVP RPUKLYL]L
ULTLU[ LU UVN Z[LLKZ PU OL[ QHYPNL (OV`
TL[ [VLZ[LTTPUN V]LYNLUVTLU \P[ 3V\PZ K\ 4V\SPU LH
(OV`» QHHY 9V[[LYKHT 3,+,5 05 +, :*/015>,97,9
:QHHR )VZTHU! º0R ^LL[ UPL[Z ]HU KL NLZJOPLKLUPZ ]HU
9V[[LYKHT HM THHY ^PS ^LS HSSLZ ^L[LU»
/PZ[VYPZJO .LUVV[ZJOHW 9V[LYVKHT\T OLLM[ TLLY KHU ]PQMLU
[^PU[PNOVUKLYK SLKLU :VTTPNLU aPQU ILRLUKL
9V[[LYKHTTLYZ HUKLYLU UPL[ 6T KPL TPUKLY ILRLUKL TLU
ZLU PU KL ZJOPQU^LYWLYZ [L aL[[LU SH[LU ^L PU KL 2YVUPLR aV
U\ LU KHU PLTHUK HHU OL[ ^VVYK +LaL RLLY PZ KH[ :QHHR
)VZTHU KPL VVR UVN LLU TVVP WSHU OLLM[ KH[ OPQ NYHHN TL[
HUKLYLU ^PS KLSLU
:QHHR ZJOYLLM HS LLYKLY RVY[ PU KL 2YVUPLR HWYPS ! º6VR
KP[ QHHY aHS PR NLUPL[LU ]HU OL[ /PZ[VYPZJO .LUVV[ZJOHW
9V[LYVKHT\T 0R ILU NLIVYLU UVJO NL[VNLU PU 9V[[LYKHT
THHY OLI LY ^LS ]HU [T NL^VVUK ,U ]HUHM
TLKPV aHS PR ^LLY [LY\NRLYLU 6TKH[ 9V[[LYKHT TPQ
NHHUKL^LN OLLM[ NLWHR[ ILU PR ]VYPN QHHY SPK NL^VYKLU ]HU
OL[ /.9 0TTLYZ HSZ QL KL Z[HK UPL[ \P[ LPNLU LY]HYPUN RLU[
KHU TVL[ QL OL[ ^LS aV KVLU 0R ]VSN KP]LYZL PU[LYUL[MVYH LU
ZWYLLR TL[ ]LLS 9V[[LYKHTTLYZ VT aV THHY HHU RLUUPZ [L
RVTLU <P[LYHHYK VU[IYLRLU UHHZ[ KL QHHYIVLRQLZ ]LLS MV[V
IVLRLU ]HU 9V[[LYKHT UPL[ PU TPQU IVLRLURHZ[¹ 6W LLU ]HU
KL LLYZ[L TVVPL KHNLU ]HU OL[ QHHY aVJO[ PR OLT VW PU aPQU
HWWHY[LTLU[ PU 5LZZLSHUKL 6W KL L ]LYKPLWPUN TL[ WYHJO
[PN \P[aPJO[ V]LY KL Z[HK LU KL UPL\^L ^PQR PU HHUIV\^ VU[
]PUN OPQ TL >H[ TL OL[ LLYZ[L VW]PLS ^HZ aPQU SPJO[L /HHNZL
HJJLU[ >H[ KVL[ LLU /HNLULLZ PU 9V[[LYKHT&
º1H KH[ aLNNLU TLUZLU ^LS ]HRLY THHY PR ILU IPQ ^PQaL ]HU
ZWYLRL UVN UVVP[ PU +LU /HHN NL^LLZ[ +\Z PR ZUHW OL[ UPL[
/L[ PZ ^LS aV KH[ PR NLLU NLIVYLU 9V[[LYKHTTLY ILU 0U ILU PR PU 5PQTLNLU NLIVYLU LU KHHY ILU PR VVR VWNLNYVLPK
5H ]LLS VTa^LY]PUNLU ILU PR \P[LPUKLSPQR OPLY [LYLJO[ NLRV
TLU»
+H[ ^HZ KHU aLRLY ]VVY Z[\KPL VM ^LYR&
º5PL[ LJO[ 0R OLI LLYZ[ PU +LU )VZJO HHU KL /;: LSLR[YV[LJO
UPLR NLZ[\KLLYK LU KHHYUH OLI PR PU +LU /LSKLY (YUOLT LU
>PSSLTZ[HK NL^VVUK 0UTPKKLSZ ^HZ PR ^LYRaHHT PU KL 0;
ZLJ[VY aVHSZ KH[ aV TVVP OLL[ TL[ JVTW\[LYZ aLN THHY
0U ^HZ PR LLU ]HU KL LLYZ[L IL^VULYZ ]HU 7YPUZLUSHUK
LU KHHYUH OLI PR UVN PU ALPZ[ NL^VVUK LU ]PQM QHHY PU <[YLJO[
=VYPN QHHY aPQU ^L [VJO ^LLY IL^\Z[ UHHY 9V[[LYKHT ]LYO\PZK
4PQU ]YPLUKPU RVT[ UV[H ILUL ]HU VVYZWYVUN \P[ <[YLJO[ THHY
[VJO ^PSKLU ^L OPLY OLLU 0R OLI LLU LPNLU ILKYPQM LU ILU
]LLS VW WHK K\Z ]VVY OL[ ^LYR THHR[L OL[ UPL[ \P[
4HHY 9V[[LYKHT PZ aV»U K`UHTPZJOL LU ]LLSaPQKPNL Z[HK /L[ PZ
TPZZJOPLU LLU YHYL Z[HK THHY PR ]VLS TL LY OLLS LYN [O\PZ
4PZZJOPLU RVT[ KH[ ^LS VTKH[ PR \P[ LLU HYILPKLYZNLaPU RVT
1L OVLM[ QL OPLY NLLU TVTLU[ [L ]LY]LSLU ,U HSZ PR ]HU VUZ
IHSRVU V]LY KL Z[HK \P[RPQR KPL ZR`SPUL KL OH]LU +H[ OLI QL
[VJO ]LYKLY ULYNLUZ PU 5LKLYSHUK»
(SZ QL KL SHUKLSPQRL RYHU[LU SLLZ[ KHU aHS UPL[ PLKLYLLU KH[
TL[ QL LLUZ aPQU
º(JO OL[ PZ aV THRRLSPQR VT ULNH[PL]L KPUNLU [L aLNNLU
1V\YUHSPZ[LU ZT\SSLU KHHY]HU 5H[\\YSPQR NLIL\YLU OPLY VVR
ULNH[PL]L KPUNLU THHY KHU R\U QL THHY LLU KPUN KVLU! LY PL[Z
WVZP[PLMZ [LNLUV]LY aL[[LU ,Y aPQU OLLS ]LLS TLUZLU ILaPN PL[Z
TVVPZ ]HU KL Z[HK [L THRLU LU SH[LU ^L LLYSPQR aPQU LY PZ PU
2YVUPLR TLP [^PU[PN QHHY aV]LLS ]LYIL[LYK PU 9V[[LYKHT 0R ZUHW LJO[ UPL[
KH[ IPQ]VVYILLSK <[YLJO[ LLU IL[LY PTHNV OLLM[ KHU
9V[[LYKHT +H[ PZ KHU ]HHR IPQ TLUZLU KPL OPLY UVN UVVP[ aPQU
NL^LLZ[ LU HSSLLU LLU WHHY NYH\^L RYHU[LUMV[V»Z OLIILU
NLaPLU»
1L RHU aV IPQ *P[` 4HYRL[PUN HHU KL ZSHN THHY 9V[LYVKHT\T
PZ UH[\\YSPQR LLU OPZ[VYPZJOL ]LYLUPNPUN K\Z SH[LU ^L OL[ KHHY
LLUZ V]LY OLIILU
º1\PZ[ PU KL QHYLU KH[ PR OPLY ^LN ^HZ OLI PR TL ]LYKPLW[ PU KL
NLZJOPLKLUPZ ]HU KL Z[HK 0R ILU SPK NL^VYKLU ]HU
9V[LYVKHT\T SLLZ HSSLYSLP RYHU[QLZ LU ISHKLU LU VVR ]LLS
IVLRLU ,PNLUSPQR ^LL[ PR UH[\\YSPQR UVN Z[LLKZ UPL[ ]LLS ]HU
KL NLZJOPLKLUPZ ]HU 9V[[LYKHT THHY PR ^PS ^LS HSSLZ ^L[LU
+L SHH[Z[L QHYLU OLI PR TL VVR ILaPN NLOV\KLU TL[ OL[ MV[V
NYHMLYLU ]HU NLIV\^LU PU 9V[[LYKHT KPL PR KHU ZVTZ VW KL
ZP[L ZR`JYHWLYJP[`JVT aL[ ,LU ]YPLUK ]HU TL KPL ]HU TPQU
PU[LYLZZL PU MV[VNYHMPL HM^LL[ R^HT LLU [PQK NLSLKLU UHHY TL
[VL APQU ]HKLY ^HZ MV[VNYHHM LU PZ V]LYSLKLU ;VLU ISLLR KH[
OPQ LLU JVSSLJ[PL TL[ MV[V»Z OHK -HTPSPLRPLRQLZ THHY
VVR ]LLS Z[HKZILLSKLU ALSKaHHT THHY ]HHR ^LL[ QL UPL[ ^H[
LY VW Z[HH[
/PQ ]YVLN aPJO HM VM PR LY PL[Z TLL RVU AV R^HT PR VW OL[
PKLL VT TLLY TLUZLU [L ]YHNLU VM aL MV[V»Z OLIILU KPL U\
TPZZJOPLU LYNLUZ VW aVSKLY SPNNLU [L ]LYZ[VMMLU :VTZ ^L[LU
aL VVR UPL[ ^H[ LY VW Z[HH[ THHY HSZ ^L KPL MV[V»Z I\UKLSLU LU
LY TL[ TLLY TLUZLU UHHY RPQRLU KHU a\S QL aPLU KH[ LY OLLS
]LLS TVVPZ IV]LU ^H[LY RVT[»
,LU HTIP[PL\Z WSHU
ºAVUKLY HTIP[PLZ LU WSHUULU NLIL\Y[ LY UPL[Z [VJO& 0R aV\
NYHHN LLU NYVLW TLUZLU ]LYaHTLSLU TL[ KPLaLSMKL PU[LYLZZL
LU KHU HS KPL MV[V»Z ]LYaHTLSLU ZJHUULU KL ]LYOHSLU LY IPQ
aVLRLU LU KHU LLU NYV[L [LU[VVUZ[LSSPUN VYNHUPZLYLU 4HHY
VVR LLU ^LIZP[L VW PU[LYUL[ ILOVVY[ [V[ KL TVNLSPQROLKLU 0R
^LL[ KH[ ]LLS TLUZLU KH[ SL\R aV\KLU ]PUKLU K\Z OL[ TVL[
S\RRLU»
>PL :QHHR )VZTHU ^PS OLSWLU TL[ OL[ VWaL[[LU ]HU LLU NYVLW
TLUZLU VT KP[ OPZ[VYPZJOL WYVQLJ[ \P[ [L ]VLYLU VM ^PL PUKLY
KHHK UVN LYNLUZ LLU KVVZ MV[V»Z OLLM[ SPNNLU TL[ Z[HKZ[HMLYL
SLU RHU OLT ILSSLU VM THPSLU
VM ZQHHR'ULZZLSHUKLUS
56.4((3: /,; 2,,A,5+05.
6W ^VLUZKHN THHY[ VU[O\SKL .LVYNL 3HNLYZ HSZ ]VVYaP[[LY
]HU OL[ )H[HHMZJO .LUVV[ZJOHW KLY 7YVLMVUKLY]PUKLSPQRL
>PQZILNLLY[L IPQ 9HUKZ[HKYHPS Z[H[PVU )SPQKVYW LLU IVYK [LY
OLYKLURPUN ]HU OL[ MLP[ KH[ VW KPL WSLR VVP[ OL[ 2LLaLUKPUN
Z[VUK
0U Z[VUK VW KLaL WSHH[Z LLU WVSKLYNLTHHS TL[ LLU
Z[VVTTHJOPUL ]HU 1HTLZ >H[[ +H[ ^HZ LLU ^LYLSKWYPTL\Y
6W ZLW[LTILY ^LYK OL[ NLTHHS KH[ KL WVSKLY )SPQKVYW
KYVVN TVLZ[ OV\KLU ]VVY OL[ LLYZ[ VUKLY Z[VVT NLIYHJO[
9VUK PZ OL[ NLTHHS HMNLIYVRLU
0U PZ KL WVSKLY )SPQKVYW VWNLOVVNK TL[ TL[LY aHUK \P[
KL >HHSOH]LU LU IV\^YPQW NLTHHR[ ]VVY Z[HKZ\P[IYLPKPUN LU
OPLY PZ KL ^PQR )SPQKVYW ]LYYLaLU
0U RVTLU KL M\UKHTLU[LU ]HU OL[ NLTHHS HHU OL[ SPJO[
<S[YHTVKLYUL IVVY[LJOUPLR PZ NLIY\PR[ VW KL WSHH[Z ^HHY VVP[
KL TVKLYUZ[L ]VYT ]HU WVSKLYILTHSPUN ^LYK [VLNLWHZ[ +L
[\UULS ]HU 9HUKZ[HK9HPS NHH[ K^HYZ KVVY KL OLPWHSLU ]HU OL[
V\KL WVTWNLIV\^ /L[ )\YLH\ 6\KOLPKR\UKPN 6UKLYaVLR
9V[[LYKHT )669 OLLM[ \P[NLIYLPK VUKLYaVLR NLKHHU
+L YLHSPZH[PL ]HU KP[ Z[\RQL NLZJOPLKLUPZ VW KLaL WSHH[Z PZ [V[
Z[HUK NLRVTLU PU ZHTLU^LYRPUN TL[ KL IV\^LY ]HU
9HUKZ[HK9HPS KL :[PJO[PUN 0UK\Z[YPLLS ,YMNVLK 9PQUTVUK LU KL
+LLSNLTLLU[L 5VVYK /L[ /PZ[VYPZJO .LUVV[ZJOHW
9V[LYVKHT\T LU /L[ )H[HHMZJO .LUVV[ZJOHW KLY
7YVLMVUKLY]PUKLSPQRL >PQZILNLLY[L aPQU LSR VW LPNLU ^PQaL
WHY[ULY PU KP[ WYVQLJ[
/L[ IVLR V]LY KP[ NLTHHS ^HHY ^L VW KLaL WSHH[Z HS LLYKLY
TLSKPUN ]HU THHR[LU PZ NLZJOYL]LU KVVY 9LTTLS[ +HHSKLY
5VYH :JOHKLL >PSSLT )VVU ;VU .\PYHU LU 4HYJV ]HU
;YPLY\T VUKLY JV€YKPUH[PL ]HU 7H\S ]HU KL 3HHY /L[ PZ LLU
PU[LYLZZHU[L ZHTLU]H[[PUN ]HU [^LL LL\^LU PUUV]H[PL PU
2YVUPLR TLP )SPQKVYW TL[ ]LLS MV[VZ [LRLUPUNLU LU PUMVYTH[PL
+L PUNHUN ]HU OL[ Z[H[PVU )SPQKVYW PZ NL]LZ[PNK HHU KL
:[H[LU^LN UHIPQ KL RY\PZPUN TL[ KL :[HKOV\KLYZ^LN /L[
Z[H[PVU LLU VU[^LYW ]HU HYJOP[LJ[ 4HHY[LU :[Y\PQZ PZ LLU
PUKY\R^LRRLUK ZJOV\^ZWLS ]HU SPQULU NL]VYTK KVVY KL
T\YLU KL ]LSL [YHWWLU LU YVS[YHWWLU (SZ TH[LYPHSLU aPQU NSHZ
WYHJO[PN UH[\\YZ[LLU LU YVLZ[]YPQ Z[HHS NLIY\PR[ +L ]VLY[\PNLU
YPQKLU VW TL[LY KPLW[L 6W KL WLYYVUZ KPLW VUKLY KL NYVUK
^VYK[ KL YLPaPNLY KVVY TPKKLS ]HU NYV[L WHULSLU TL[ [LRL
UPUNLU MV[VZ LU [LRZ[LU OLYPUULYK HHU KL OPZ[VYPL ]HU KLaL
WSLR 0U ILPKL YPQYPJO[PUNLU aPQU TL[LYZ NYV[L WHULSLU HHUNL
IYHJO[ ^HHYVW HHU KL OHUK ]HU [OLTHZ KL NLZJOPLKLUPZ
^VYK[ ]LYOHHSK 0U OL[ IVLR aPQU KLaL WHULSLU VVR HMNLKY\R[
:WLJPHHS ]VVY KL SLKLU ]HU 9V[LYVKHT\T ^VYK[ OL[ IVLR KH[
PU KL ^PURLS _ RVZ[ HHUNLIVKLU ]VVY _ PUJS
]LYaLUKRVZ[LU < R\U[ OL[ IVLR UVN Z[LLKZ ILZ[LSSLU KVVY
_ V]LY [L THRLU VW NPYV ]HU /PZ[VYPZJO
.LUVV[ZJOHW 9V[LYVKHT\T V]] ¸OL[ 2LLaLUKPUN SLKLU
HHUIPLKPUN¹ ‹
(.,5+(
(NLUKH ]VVY KL 1HHY]LYNHKLYPUN ]HU OL[ /PZ[VYPZJO
.LUVV[ZJOHW 9V[LYVKHT\T VW ^VLUZKHN TLP VT
\\Y PU (OV` 9V[[LYKHT (OV`^LN [L 9V[[LYKHT
(HU]HUN 1HHY]LYNHKLYPUN VT \\Y
.HZ[ZWYLRLY VT \\Y KL OLLY 1VZ ]HU KLY =LN[ HSNLTLLU
KPYLJ[L\Y ]HU (OV` 5= TL[ HHUZS\P[LUK LLU YVUKSLPKPUN KVVY
OL[ ]LYUPL\^KL :WVY[WHSLPZ (OV`
(NLUKH!
6WLUPUN
0UNLRVTLU Z[\RRLU TLKLKLSPUNLU
=LYZSHN QHHY]LYNHKLYPUN HWYPS =LYZSHN ZLJYL[HYPZ V]LY =LYZSHN WLUUPUNTLLZ[LY V]LY =LYZSHN RHZJVTTPZZPL LU NVLKRL\YPUN QHHYZ[\RRLU )LUVLTPUN RHZJVTTPZZPL 9VUK]YHHN
:S\P[PUN
5H LLU RVY[L WH\aL ]HU [V[ aHS KL OLLY 1VZ ]HU
KLY =LN[ HSNLTLLU KPYLJ[L\Y ]HU (OV` 9V[[LYKHT 5= LLU
WYLZLU[H[PL NL]LU V]LY KL NYVV[ZJOLLWZL ]LYIV\^PUN KPL OL[
:WVY[WHSLPZ (OV` PU OLLM[ VUKLYNHHU /PQ aHS VVR [LY\N
ISPRRLU VW QHHY (OV` TL[ KHHYIPQ IPQaVUKLYL HHUKHJO[
]VVY KLaL 2YVUPLR
(HUZS\P[LUK PZ LY LLU NYVLWZNL^PQaL YVUKSLPKPUN KVVY KLSLU
]HU OL[ ]LYUPL\^KL :WVY[WHSLPZ ]VVY aV]LY KL ILaL[[PUN LU
OL[ NLIY\PR ]HU KL Y\PT[LU KP[ [VLSH[LU
+L QHHYZ[\RRLU aPQU WLY THPS VW]YHHNIHHY IPQ KL HKTPUPZ[YH[PL
VUKLY HKYLZ! YV[LYVKHT\T'YV[LYVKHT\TUS
>H[LYSPUPL HHU KL a\PKVVZ[ RHU[ ]HU KL Z[HK <[YLJO[ ^HHYUH
^L VUKLY SLPKPUN ]HU LLU RLUULY LLU [VJO[ V]LY KL
<UP]LYZP[LP[ZJHTW\Z +L <P[OVM a\SSLU THRLU VVYZWYVURLSPQR
TPSP[HPY [LYYLPU ]HU KL >H[LYSPUPL /PLY aPQU U\ KL L_HJ[L LU
ZVJPHSL MHJ\S[LP[LU ]HU KL <UP]LYZP[LP[ ]HU <[YLJO[ NLO\PZ]LZ[
PU ZWLJ[HJ\SHPYL HYJOP[LJ[VUPZJOL ZJOLWWPUNLU aVHSZ OL[
4PUUHLY[NLIV\^ ]HU >PSSLT 1HU 5L\[LSPUNZ LU OL[ LK\JH[VYP
\T ]HU 9LT 2VVSOHHZ )PQ TVVP ^LLY a\SSLU ^PQ KHHYIPQ VVR
KL MYHHPL )V[HUPZJOL ;\PU ILaVLRLU
;LY HMZS\P[PUN ]HU KL KHN KYPURLU ^L PU OL[ JLU[Y\T ]HU
4VU[MVVY[ LLU NSHHZQL 6VR R\UULU ^L LLU ^HUKLSPUN THRLU
KVVY KP[ Z[HKQL KH[ PU Z[HKZYLJO[ RYLLN 9LZ[LU ]HU LLU
ZSV[ LU LLU RSVVZ[LY PU[PLTL Z[YHH[QLZ LU KL 1HUZRLYR ZWLJPHHS
]VVY OL[ .LUVV[ZJOHW VWLU UVKLU [V[ L_WSVYH[PL 6TZ[YLLRZ
\\Y aPQU ^L [LY\N IPQ TL[YVZ[H[PVU *HWLSZL )Y\N
+LLSULTLYZ TVL[LU LY YLRLUPUN TLL OV\KLU KH[ OL[ ILaVLR
HHU RHZ[LLS +L /HHY UVNHS ^H[ ]YHHN[ ]HU O\U SVVW]LYTVNLU!
KL I\Z RHU UPL[ [V[ ]VVY OL[ RHZ[LLS YPQKLU LY PZ LLU [VLNHUNZ
[YHW LU VVR PU OL[ NLIV\^ aPQU LY ZSLJO[Z [YHWWLU
+L L_J\YZPLJVTTPZZPL OLLM[ OHHY ILZ[ NLKHHU KL RVZ[LU ]HU
KP[ WYVNYHTTH aV SHHN TVNLSPQR [L OV\KLU
0UZJOYPQ]PUN ]PUK[ WSHH[Z KVVY V]LYTHRPUN ]HU _ VW YLRUY
[U] /PZ[VYPZJO .LUVV[ZJOHW 9V[LYVKHT\T V]]
º<[YLJO[ » 6U[]HUNZ[ ]HU KP[ ILKYHN NLSK[ HSZ IL]LZ[PNPUN
]HU \^ KLLSUHTL < VU[]HUN[ K\Z NLLU HWHY[L IL]LZ[PNPUN
AVUKLY [LNLUILYPJO[ aPLU ^PQ \ NYHHN VW Q\UP VT \\Y
IPQ 4L[YVZ[H[PVU *HWLSZL )Y\N
6W Q\UP PZ OL[ [LSLMVVUU\TTLY ]VVY ]LYOPUKLYPUN VM UVVKNL
]HSSLU 1HHYL_J\YZPL 9V[LYVKHT\T ]YPQKHN Q\UP 6<+ ,5 50,<> 05 /,; <;9,*/;:,
+L L_J\YZPLJVTTPZZPL
5VYH :JOHKLL
4LSHUPL 7VZ[ ]HU 6WOLT ‹
6W KL [YHKP[PVULSL KH[\T UHTLSPQR KL KHN UH
/LTLS]HHY[ZKHN ]PUK[ KL QHHYSPQRZL L_J\YZPL ]HU VUZ
/PZ[VYPZJO .LUVV[ZJOHW WSHH[Z 4L[ OL[ VWLUIHHY ]LY]VLY
UH\^LSPQRZ [L ILYLPRLU WSHH[ZLU YVUKSLPKPUNLU ]HU KLZR\UKP
NLU RVMMPL S\UJO LU IVYYLS Z[HHU VW OL[ WYVNYHTTH
0UOV\KLSPQR PZ KL KHN LLU TLUNZLS ]HU X\HZPV\KL HYJOP[LJ
[\\Y PU /HHYa\PSLUZ ]LYMYPZZLUKL UPL\^IV\^ PU <[YLJO[ LU
LJO[ TPKKLSLL\^Z PU 4VU[MVVY[
+L I\Z Z[HH[ ]YPQKHN Q\UP VT \\Y ]VVY VUZ RSHHY VW OL[
WHYRLLY[LYYLPU ]HU TL[YVZ[H[PVU *HWLSSL HHU KL 01ZZLS LU ]LY
[YLR[ \P[LYSPQR LU VU]LYIPKKLSPQR VT \\Y +L LLYZ[L
ILZ[LTTPUN PZ RHZ[LLS +L /HHY LLU SHH[ ULNLU[PLUKLLL\^ZL
MHU[HZPL VU[ZWYV[LU HHU OL[ IYLPU ]HU HYJOP[LJ[ 7PLYYL *\PQWLYZ
LU ,[PLUUL IHYVU ]HU A\`SLU ]HU 5PQL]LS[ ;VLU ,[PLUUL PU
SHUKNVLK +L /HHY LYMKL ^HZ OL[ RHZ[LLS UPL[ ]LLS TLLY
KHU LLU IV\^]HS KPL OVVNZ[LUZ KPLUZ[ RVU KVLU HSZ Z[LLU
NYVL]L VM HSZ PUZWPYH[PLIYVU ]VVY YVTHU[PZJOL ZJOPSKLYZ
.LS\RRPN ^HZ ,[PLUUL PU NL[YV\^K TL[ LLU IHYVULZZL
+L 9V[OZJOPSK aVKH[ OPQ KL Y\{UL NLOLLS RVU SH[LU OLYIV\^LU
6W ]LYaVLR ]HU KL MHTPSPL THHR[L *\PQWLYZ LY LLU RHZ[LLS ]HU
KH[ LY \P[aPL[ HSZ KL KYVVT ]HU LLU RPUK KH[ YPKKLYZ Y\P[LYZ LU
YV]LYZ ^PS ZWLSLU (UKLYaPQKZ ^LYK OL[ RHZ[LLS ]HU JLU[YHSL
]LY^HYTPUN ]VVYaPLU LLU TVKLYUL RL\RLU LU aLSMZ LLU SPM[
U\ V]LYPNLUZ UPL[ TLLY PU NLIY\PR 5H KL VJO[LUKRVMMPL a\S
SLU NPKZLU VUZ KVVY OL[ ^VUKLYIHHYSPQRL RHZ[LLS YVUKSLPKLU
>L S\UJOLU PU KL VTNL]PUN ]HU KL 5PL\^L /VSSHUKZL
*SXS3GPMTEJPMGOVGSQ
2YVUPLR TLP -6;67<AA,3
(SSL PUaLUKLYZ OHKKLU OL[ IPQ OL[ YLJO[L LPUK +L HMNLILLSKL
MV[V SPL[ OL[ V\KL IL\YZNLIV\^ aPLU aVHSZ KH[ [V[ OL[ IVTIHY
KLTLU[ ]HU HHU OL[ >LZ[UPL\^SHUK OLLM[ NLZ[HHU +L
MV[V PZ HMRVTZ[PN \P[ OL[ NLKLURIVLR ]HU KL 2HTLY ]HU
2VVWOHUKLS KH[ PU ]LYZJOLLU >PL NVLK OLLM[ NLRLRLU
aHN KH[ VW KL MV[V LLUaLSMKL ZVVY[ IYPL]LUI\Z Z[VUK HSZ KL I\Z
KPL U\ UVN PU +LSMZOH]LU Z[HH[ LU KL ]VVYRHU[ ]HU KL ]VYPNL
2YVUPLR ZPLYKL
/L[ IL\YZNLIV\^ ^HZ VU[^VYWLU KVVY (KYPHHU ]HU KLY >LYMM
LU VWNLSL]LYK PU /L[ Z[VUK VW KL WSHH[Z ]HU KL V\KL
IL\YZ \P[ ^HHY [LNLU^VVYKPN Z[H[PVU )SHHR Z[HH[
/L[ V\KL IL\YZNLIV\^ ^LYK PU KL SVVW KLY [PQK KP]LYZL THSLU
]LYIV\^K AV ^LYK PU KL IPUULUWSHH[Z V]LYRHW[
/L[ NLIV\^ aV\KLU ^L [LNLU^VVYKPN T\S[PM\UJ[PVULLS UVL
TLU :VTZ ^LYK KL OHS KVVY KL ZJO\[[LYZ NLIY\PR[ ]VVY L_JLY
JP[PwU LU VW HUKLYL TVTLU[LU ]VVY aHUN\P[]VLYPUNLU [\YU
^LKZ[YPQKLU LU VLMLUPUNLU ]HU KL ]YPQ^PSSPNL IYHUK^LLY
0U OL[ NLIV\^ ^HYLU VVR KL RHU[VYLU ]HU KL 2HTLY ]HU
2VVWOHUKLS LU OL[ /HUKLSZYLNPZ[LY NL]LZ[PNK +L MV[V ^HZ
aLSMZ HMRVTZ[PN \P[ OL[ NLKLURIVLR ]HU KL 2HTLY ]HU
2VVWOHUKLS KH[ PU ]LYZJOLLU =LYKLY ^LYK WSHH[Z NLIV
KLU HHU OL[ )H[HHMZL .LUVV[ZJOHW KLY 7YVLMVUKLY]PUKLSPQRL
>PQZILNLLY[L
+L W\aaLS OLLM[ KLaL RLLY LLU PL[Z HUKLY RHYHR[LY LU ZS\P[ HHU
VW OL[ [OLTH ]HU KLaL 2YVUPLR! (OV`
(OV`Z T\aPLRNLZJOPLKLUPZ PZ PUKY\R^LRRLUK LU VUL]LUHHY
IHHY 1\PZ[ KPL IPQaVUKLYL YLW\[H[PL KYHHN[ LY HS ]LLY[PN QHHY [VL
IPQ KH[ KP[ 9V[[LYKHTZL TLNHWVKP\T Z[HH[ ]VVY UL[ KPL WVY[PL
TLLY^HHYKL aV^LS ]VVY HY[PLZ[ HSZ ]VVY JVUZ\TLU[ +L ^LN
UHHY KPL \UPLRL Z[H[\Z PZ PU KL ]VVYIPQL ]PLY KLJLUUPH KVVY
]VVYHS 9VI =LYOVYZ[ MV[VNYHMPZJO ]HZ[NLSLNK PU VU[LSIHYL
VWUHTLU ]HU KL TLLZ[ ZWLJ[HJ\SHPYL KHU ^LS TLLZ[ VU]LYNL
[LSPQRL TVTLU[LU /L[ MV[VIVLR (OV` `LHYZ PU JVUJLY[ PZ
aPQU \P[NLIHSHUJLLYKL V]LYaPJO[ ]HU LLU NL^LSKPNL IYVR
5LKLYSHUKZL T\aPLROPZ[VYPL ]HU PU[LYUH[PVUHSL HSS\YL <YLU
UHNLUPL[LU aPQU LYTLL NLNHYHUKLLYK
>PS[ \ LLU ]HU KLaL JVSSLJ[VYZ P[LTZ ^PUULU& +H[ RHU >L
NL]LU LY ^LN HHU SLKLU ]HU 9V[LYVKHT\T )LHU[^VVYK
VUKLYZ[HHUKL ]YHHN LU LTHPS \^ HU[^VVYK ]VVY ]YPQKHN TLP UHHY HOV`QHHY'HOV`US +L ^PUUHHYZ ^VYKLU WLY LTHPS
VW KL OVVN[L NLIYHJO[ /LLM[ \ NLLU LTHPS Z[\\Y \^ HU[
^VVYK KHU ]VVY ^VLUZKHN TLP UHHY KL YLKHJ[L\Y ]HU
2YVUPLR KPL LY ]VVY aHS aVYNLU KH[ \^ HU[^VVYK IPQ[PQKZ IPQ
(OV` [LYLJO[ RVT[
+L ^PUUHHY PZ )PHUJH [LY 4VSLU ]K 6\[LY \P[ (WLSKVVYU
>PL ^HZ KL LLYZ[L HY[PLZ[ KPL VW[YHK PU (OV` &
( -YHUR AHWWH
) :HU[HUH
* 7PUR -SV`K
/L[ IVLR PZ [L]LUZ PU ILWLYR[L VWSHNL ]LYRYPQNIHHY IPQ KL 2HZZH ]HU (OV` ]VVY _ ‹
2YVUPLR TLP 

Vergelijkbare documenten

De still - Gerrit Rietveld Academie

De still - Gerrit Rietveld Academie ^LN UHHY (OV` [L ]PUKLU ^HHY]HU Y\PT  TPSQVLU VUZ :WVY[WHSLPZ ILaVJO[ ^HHY HS TLLY KHU  JVUJLY[LU KVVY TLLY KHU  HY[PLZ[LUIHUKZ WSHH[Z]VUKLU LU ^L HS aV»U  L]LULTLU[LU OLIILU TVNLU I...

Nadere informatie

Gama de Modelos

Gama de Modelos  L]LULTLU[LU OLIILU TVNLU ILSL]LU 0R ILU NLIVYLU LU NL[VNLU VW 9V[[LYKHTA\PK LU OLI (OV` SL[[LYSPQR NLIV\^K aPLU ^VYKLU 0R aH[ [VLU VW OL[ 4VU[MVY[ *VSSLNL LU PU KL WH\aL [\ZZLU KL TPKKHN NP...

Nadere informatie

Nummer 3 - Waterscouting.com

Nummer 3 - Waterscouting.com ]LY KHHYI\P[LU NL^VYKLU! aV»U  TPSQVLU TLUZLU ^PZ[LU KL ^LN UHHY (OV` [L ]PUKLU ^HHY]HU Y\PT  TPSQVLU VUZ :WVY[WHSLPZ ILaVJO[ ^HHY HS TLLY KHU  JVUJLY[LU KVVY TLLY KHU  HY[PLZ[LUIHUKZ ...

Nadere informatie

12 Tips uit de testpraktijk

12 Tips uit de testpraktijk VWLUIHYL JVUJLY[LU ^LYKLU NLNL]LU! KL +VLSL (HU KL *VVSZPUNLS ]LY]PUN UH  KL .YVV[L +VLSLaHHS KL V\KL +VLSL ]HU OL[ /HHNZJOL]LLY )PQUH LLU LL\^ SH[LY UHT TLU LLU UPL\^L +VLSL PU NLIY\PR THHY...

Nadere informatie

EasyGrip Stone Arona Commercial Travertine

EasyGrip Stone Arona Commercial Travertine (SZ QHYLUSHUN SPK ]HU OL[ /PZ[VYPZJO .LUVV[ZJOHW 9V[LYVKHT\T ¶ ^PL HUKLYZ KHU VUZ HSSLY /HUZ /VYZ[PUN OLLM[ TL [V[ OL[ SPKTHH[ZJOHW ]LYSLPK ¶ PZ OL[ TL LLU OLSL LLY VT PU KLaL WYHJO[PNL 2YVUPLR PL[...

Nadere informatie

EasyLock Wood Sorti - Reina Revelation

EasyLock Wood Sorti - Reina Revelation (SZ QHYLUSHUN SPK ]HU OL[ /PZ[VYPZJO .LUVV[ZJOHW 9V[LYVKHT\T ¶ ^PL HUKLYZ KHU VUZ HSSLY /HUZ /VYZ[PUN OLLM[ TL [V[ OL[ SPKTHH[ZJOHW ]LYSLPK ¶ PZ OL[ TL LLU OLSL LLY VT PU KLaL WYHJO[PNL 2YVUPLR PL[...

Nadere informatie