Leon, Juan - World Education Research Association
Bridging the Gaps: The Role of Educational Process Variables on Mitigating Achievement Differences
Juan Leon, Group for the Analysis of Development, Peru; [email protected]; Alejandra Miranda, Group
for the Analysis of Development, Peru , [email protected]
Keywords: achievement gaps, Peru, school effectiveness
In the last decades, the educational system in Peru has shown great changes. Different governments
have been implementing a series of educational policies aimed at increasing educational access
nationwide at primary and secondary level with satisfactory results. However, a good educational
system is not only measured in termsof educational access, but also in terms of students' learning
outcomes. Then, National Assessments carried out since the 90's to the present, have showed that
usually high achievers in math and reading comprehension are non-indigenous students with high
socioeconomic status, living in urban areas, and with well-educated parents. A similar pattern could be
observed with International Assessments where Peru has been participated (PERCE, SERCE and PISA).
Thus, this study attempted to answer two research questions: (i) what are the effects and magnitude of
school educational process on educational quality, understood as student performance, in Peru? (ii)
what are the school educational processes that mitigate the gender, socioeconomic, indigenous and
residential gaps on achievement in Peru?. Our analysis identified that educational process variables
(e.g.: school climate) are positively associated with student achievement in math (increasing educational
quality) after controlling by student's characteristics (e.g.: gender). Also, it shows that the effect of
educational processes variables on gender, socioeconomic status, and indigenous achievement gaps are
mixed. As example, school climate has a positive effect narrowing the socioeconomic achievement gaps
while has no effect on reducing the indigenous achievement gaps.
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